Advertisement

Headache and Obesity in the Pediatric Population

  • Christopher B. Oakley
  • Ann I. Scher
  • Ana Recober
  • B. Lee PeterlinEmail author
Childhood and Adolescent Headache (S Evers, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Childhood and Adolescent Headache

Abstract

Childhood obesity and headache are both significant health concerns that often have a marked impact both personally and socially, that if not addressed can carry over into adulthood. For many individuals, these effects may be magnified when obesity and headache are seen in conjunction. It is this overlap between obesity and headache in children, as well as similarities in the known mechanism of action for feeding and headache, which led to a suspected association between the two. Unfortunately, although recent studies have supported this association, only a limited number have been conducted to directly address this. Furthermore, despite rising rates of childhood obesity and headache, the associated medical comorbidities, and the significant financial cost for these conditions, there is a relative void in studies investigating treatment options that address both underlying conditions of obesity and headache in children.

Keywords

Migraine Headache Pediatric Adolescents Obesity BMI 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The views expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or U.S. Government.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Christopher B. Oakley is a consultant for the British Medical Journal, and received honoraria from Southwest Florida Pediatric Conference and travel/accommodations expenses covered or reimbursed by Southwest Florida Pediatric Conference and All Children’s Hospital-Tampa/; St. Petersburg, Florida. Ann I. Scher is a consultant for Allergan, and Scher received grants from DoD (DMRDP, CNRM, CNP) and honoraria from Headache Cooperative of the Pacific. Ana Recober was a one-time consultant and had travel/accommodations expenses covered or reimbursed by Allergan. B. Lee Peterlin received grants from NIH/NINDS (#K23-NS078345), Landenberger Foundation, GSK, and Luitpold Pharmaceuticals.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Abu-Arefeh I, Russell G. Prevalence of headache and migraine in schoolchildren. BMJ. 1994;309:765–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karnik S, Kanekar A. Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3:1–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ogden C, Carroll M. Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents: United States, Trends 1963–1965 Through 2007–2008. NCHS Health E-Stat. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barlow SE. Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007;120 Suppl 4:S164–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Mei Z, et al. CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat. 2000;246:1–190.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012;307:483–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caprio S, Daniels SR, Drewnowski A, Kaufman FR, Palinkas LA, Rosenbloom AL, et al. Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment. Obesity. 2008;16:2566–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwimmer JB, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. JAMA. 2003;289:1813–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Erickson SJ, Robinson TN, Haydel KF, Killen JD. Are overweight children unhappy? Body mass index, depressive symptoms, and overweight concerns in elementary school children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:931–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Storch EA, Milsom VA, DeBraganza N, Lewin AB, Geffken GR, Silverstein JH. Peer victimization, psychosocial adjustment, and physical activity in overweight and at-risk-for-overweight youth. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32:80–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Deubner DC. An epidemiologic study of migraine and headache in 10–20 year olds. Headache. 1977;17:173–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sillanpaa M. Changes in the prevalence of migraine and other headache during the first seven school years. Headache. 1983;23:15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liner MS, Stewart WF, Celentano DD, Ziegler D, Sprecher M. An epidemiologic study of headache among adolescents and young adults. JAMA. 1989;261:2211–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stewart WF, Linet MS, Celentano DD, Van Natta M, Siegler D. Age and sex-specific incidence rates of migraine with and without visual aura. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;34:1111–20.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sillanpaa M. Prevalence of headache in pre puberty. Headache. 1983;23:10–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abu-Arafeh I, Razak S, Sivaraman B, Graham C. Prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents: a systematic review of population-based studies. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52:1088–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis DW, Ashwal S, Dahl G, Dorbad D, Hirtz D, Prensky A, et al. Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Practice parameter: evaluation of children and adolescents with recurrent headaches: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology. 2002;59:490–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rasmussen BK, Jensen R, Schroll M, Olesen J. Epidemiology of headache in a general population—a prevalence study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:1147–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Edmeads J, Findlay H, Tugwell P, Pryse-Phillips W, Nelson RF, Murray TJ. Impact of migraine and tension-type headache on life-style, consulting behavior, and medication use: a Canadian population survey. Can J Neurol Sci. 1993;20:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Linet MS, Stewart WF, Celentano DD, Ziegler D, Sprecher M. An epidemiologic study of headache among adolescents and young adults. JAMA. 1989;261:2211–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dalsgaard-Nielsen T. Some aspects of the epidemiology of migraine in Denmark. Headache. 1970;10:14–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lipton RB, Silberstein SD, Stewart WF. An update on the epidemiology of migraine. Headache. 1994;34:319–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mortimer MJ, Kay J, Jaron A. Epidemiology of headache and childhood migraine in an urban general practice using ad hoc Vahlquist and IHS criteria. Dev Med Child Neuro. 1992;34:1095–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Valquist B. Migraine in children. Int Arch Allergy. 1955;7:348–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Small P, Waters WE. Headache and migraine in a comprehensive school. In: Waters WE, editor. The epidemiology of migraine. Bracknell-Berkshire, England: Boehringer Ingel-helm, Ltd.; 1974. p. 56–67.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sillanpaa M. Prevalence of migraine and other headaches in Finnish children starting school. Headache. 1976;15:288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Powers SW, Patton SR, Hommel KA, Hershey AD. Quality of life in childhood migraines: clinical impact and comparison to other chronic illnesses. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1 Pt 1):e1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hawkins K, Wang S, Rupnow M. Direct cost burden among insured US employees with migraine. Headache. 2008;48:553–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peterlin BL, Rosso AL, Williams MA, Rosenberg JR, Haythornthwaite JA, Merikangas KR, et al. Episodic migraine and obesity and the influence of age, race, and sex. Neurology. 2013;81:1314–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Frumin K, Gabis L, Mazor-Aronovich K, Modan-Moses D, Reichman B, et al. Headaches in overweight children and adolescents referred to a tertiary-care center in Israel. Obesity. 2008;16:659–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.•
    Hershey AD, Powers SW, Nelson TD, Kabbouche MA, Winner P, Yonker M, et al. American Headache Society Pediatric Adolescent Section. Obesity in the pediatric headache population: a multicenter study. Headache. 2009;49:170–7. This retrospective, multi-center, clinic-based study is the first longitudinal study evaluating the association between obesity and headaches in children. The authors reported a correlation between obesity and headache frequency as well as headache-related disability. A reduction in BMI at the 3-month follow-up was positively correlated with a reduction in headache frequency.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.••
    Robberstad L, Dyb G, Hagen K, Stovner LJ, Holmen TL, Zwart JA. An unfavorable lifestyle and recurrent headaches among adolescents: the HUNT study. Neurology. 2010;75:712–7. This is the first general population epidemiologic study evaluating the migraine-obesity association in adolescents, as well as one of the best designed studies evaluating this association in adolescents to date. The risk of migraine was 60 % greater in those adolescents who were overweight or obese compared with those who were normal weight.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA. 2008;299:2401–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pakalnis A, Kring D. Chronic daily headache, medication overuse, and obesity in children and adolescents. J Child Neurol. 2012;27:577–80.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ravid S, Shahar E, Schiff A, Gordon S. Obesity in children with headaches: association with headache type, frequency, and disability. Headache. 2013;53:954–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lu SR, Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Juang KD, Chen SP, Liao YC, et al. Incidence and risk factors of chronic daily headache in young adolescents: a school cohort study. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kinik ST, Alehan F, Erol I, Kanra AR. Obesity and pediatric migraine. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:105–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peterlin BL, Rapoport AM, Kurth T. Migraine and obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms, and implications. Headache. 2010;50:631–48.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chai N, Scher A, Moghekar A, Bond D, Peterlin B. Obesity and Headache: Part I—Epidemiology of Obesity, and Headache; Part II—Potential Mechanism and Treatment Considerations. Headache. 2013; (in press).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taylor FR. Weight change associated with the use of migraine-preventive medications. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1069–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kossoff EH, Huffman J, Turner Z, Gladstein J. Use of the modified Atkins diet for adolescents with chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:1014–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.•
    Verrotti A, Agostinelli S, D'Egidio C, Di Fonzo A, Carotenuto M, Parisi P, et al. Impact of a weight loss program on migraine in obese adolescents. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20:394–7. This longitudinal study was designed to look at the effects of a multidisciplinary weight loss program on headache outcomes over a 12 month period in adolescents with an initial BMI ≥ 97th percentile. A lowered BMI was significantly associated with better migraine outcomes 12 months later.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Haque B, Rahman KM, Hoque A, Hasan AT, Chowdhury RN, Khan SU, et al. Precipitating and relieving factors of migraine vs tension type headache. BMC Neurol. 2012;12:82. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-82.
  45. 45.
    Milde-Busch A, Blaschek A, Borggräfe I, Heinen F, Straube A, von Kries R. Associations of diet and lifestyle with headache in high-school students: results from a cross-sectional study. Headache. 2010;50:1104–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bic Z, Blix GG, Hopp HP, Leslie FM, Schell MJ. The influence of a low-fat diet on incidence and severity of migraine headaches. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8:623–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hasselmark L, Malmgren R, Hannerz J. Effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet, low in protein-tryptophan, in classic and common migraine. Cephalalgia. 1987;7:87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kowacs PA, Piovesan EJ, Tepper SJ. Rejection and acceptance of possible side effects of migraine prophylactic drugs. Headache. 2009;49:1022–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alberici A, Borroni B, Manelli F, Griffini S, Zavarise P, Padovani A, et al. Topiramate weight loss in migraine patients. J Neurol Sci. 2009;278:64–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schutt M, Brinkhoff J, Drenckhan M, Lehnert H, Sommer C. Weight reducing and metabolic effects of topiramate in patients with migraine—an observational study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118:449–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Peterlin BL, Calhoun AH, Siegel S, Mathew NT. Rational combination therapy in refractory migraine. Headache. 2008;48:805–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher B. Oakley
    • 1
  • Ann I. Scher
    • 2
  • Ana Recober
    • 3
  • B. Lee Peterlin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, JHUSOM Headache ResearchJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Preventive Medicine and BiometricsUniformed Services UniversityBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations