Supraorbital and Supratrochlear Stimulation for Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias

  • Julien Vaisman
  • Edrick Lopez
  • Nicholas K. Muraoka
Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (M Matharu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias


Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) is a rare primary headache disorder with challenging and limited treatment options for those unfortunate patients with severe and refractory pain. This article will review the conventional pharmacologic treatments as well as the new neuromodulation techniques designed to offer alternative and less invasive treatments. These techniques have evolved from the treatment of migraine headache, a much more common headache syndrome, and expanded towards application in patients with TAC. Specifically, the article will discuss the targeting of the supratrochlear and supraorbital nerves, both terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve.


Cluster headache Chronic cluster headache Migraine headache Neuromodulation Occipital nerve Pain Peripheral nerve Sphenopalatine ganglion Supraorbital nerve Supratrochlear nerve Stimulation Transcutaneous nerve stimulation Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Julien Vaisman declares that he has no conflict of interest. Edrick Lopez declares that he has no conflict of interest. Nicholas K. Muraoka declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julien Vaisman
    • 1
    • 3
  • Edrick Lopez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nicholas K. Muraoka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Spaulding Rehabilitation HospitalCharlestownUSA
  3. 3.Pain and Wellness CenterPeabodyUSA

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