Headache and Sleep in Children

  • Benedetta Bellini
  • Sara Panunzi
  • Oliviero Bruni
  • Vincenzo Guidetti
Childhood and Adolescent Headache (S Evers, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Childhood and Adolescent Headache

Abstract

Several scientific studies report a close relationship between sleep and headache: sleep changes may reflect the onset and increase of both duration and frequency of headache attacks. Variations in sleep architecture, together with a poor sleep hygiene in children, may indeed be responsible for the onset of headache and its development into a chronic disease. For a correct clinical management of children with headache, it is therefore fundamental to investigate their sleep habits, architecture and potential disturbances, in order to develop adequate therapeutic plans for both sleep and headache.

Keywords

Headache Sleep disorders Children Circadian rhythm Therapeutic plans 

References

Papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Abu-Arefeh I, Russell G. Prevalence of headache and migraine in schoolchildren. BMJ. 1994;309:765–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Owens JA, Whitmans M. Sleep problems. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2004;34:154–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alberti A. Headache and sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:431–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kelman L, Rains JC. Headache and sleep: examination of sleep patterns and complaint in a large clinical sample of migraineurs. Headache. 2005;45:904–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dexter JD, Weitzman ED. The relationship of nocturnal headaches to sleep stage patterns. Neurology. 1970;20:513–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dexter JD. The relationship between stage III and IV and REM sleep and arousals with migraine. Headache. 1979;19:364–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kayed K, Sjaastad O. Nocturnal and early morning headaches. Ann Clin Res. 1985;17:243–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pfaffenrath V, Pollmann W, Ruther E, Lund R, Hajak G. Onset of nocturnal attacks of chronic cluster headache in relation to sleep stages. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:403–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sahota PK, Dexter JD. Sleep and Headache Syndromes: A Clinical Review. Headache. 1990;30:80–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jennum P, Jensen R. Sleep and headache. Sleep Med Rev. 2002;6:471–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hill W. On some causes of backwardness and stupidity in children. BMJ. 1889;2:711–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilkinson M, Williams K, Leyton M. Observations on the treatment of an acute attack of migraine. Res Clin Stud Headache Basel, Karger. 1978;6:141–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blau JN. Resolution of migraine attacks: Sleep and the recovery phase. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1982;45:223–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dexter JD. Relationship Between Sleep and Headache Syndromes. In: Thorpy MJ, editor. Handbook of sleep disorders. Marcel Dekker: New York; 1990. p. 663–71.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Inamorato E, Minatti Hannuch SN, Zukerman E. The role of sleep in migraine attacks. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1993;51:429–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    •• Bruni O, Fabrizi P, Ottaviano S, et al. Prevalence of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence with headache: a casecontrol study. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:492–8. This article confirmed, with valid statistical results, a strong association between migraine or headache and different sleep disorders. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller VA, Palermo TM, Powers SW, et al. Migraine headaches and sleep disturbances in children. Headache. 2003;43:362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barabas G, Ferrari M, Matthews WS. Childhood migraine and somnambulism. Neurology. 1983;33:948–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pradalier A, Guittard M, Dry J. Somnambulism, migraine and propranolol. Headache. 1987;27:143–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giroud M, D’Athis P, Guard O, Dumas R. Migraine et somnambulisme Une enquete portant sur 122 migraineux. Rev Neurol. 1986;142:42–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dexter JD. The relationship between disorders of arousal from sleep and migraine. Headache. 1986;26:322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paiva T, Batista A, Martins P, Martins A. The relationship between headaches and sleep disturbances. Headache. 1995;35:590–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bille BS. Migraine in school children. A study of the incidence and short-term prognosis, and a clinical, psychological and electroencephalographic comparison between children with migraine and matched controls. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1962;136:1–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fearon P, Hotopf M. Relation between headache in childhood and physical and psychiatric symptoms in adulthood: National birth cohort study. BMJ. 2001;322:1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rhee H. Relationships between physical symptoms and pubertal development. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005;19:95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pakalnis A, Splaingard M, Splaingard D, Kring D, Colvin A. Serotonin effects on sleep and emotional disorders in adolescent migraine. Headache. 2009;49(10):1486–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Martin J, Hiscock H, Hardy P, Davey B, Wake M. Adverse associations of infant and child sleep problems and parent health: an Australian population study. Pediatrics. 2007;119:947–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Owens JA. Epidemiology of sleep disorders during childhood. In: Sheldon SH, Ferber R, Kryger MH, editors. Principles and Practices of Pediatric Sleep Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mindell JA, Owens JA. A clinical guide to pediatric sleep: diagnosis and management of sleep problems. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 2003.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mathew NT, Glaze D, Frost JJR. Sleep apnea and other sleep abnormalities in primary headache disorders. In: Rose C, editor. Migraine, Proc 5th Int Migraine Symp. London: Karger; 1985. p. 40–9.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Palayew MD, Kryger MH. Sleep apnea and headache. Headache Quarterly. 1994;5:227–30.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Giorgis G, Miletto R, Iannuccelli M, Camuffo M, Scerni S. Headache in association with sleep disorders in children: a psychodiagnostic evaluation and controlled clinical study—L-5-HTP versus placebo. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1987;13:425–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smeyers P. Headaches in childhood: association with sleep disorders and psychological implications. Rev Neurol. 1999;28:S150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Carotenuto M, Guidetti V, Ruju F, Galli F, Tagliente FR, Pascotto A. Headache disorders as risk factors for sleep disturbances in school aged children. J Headache Pain. 2005;6:268–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Luc ME, Gupta A, Birnberg JM, Reddick D, Kohrman MH. Characterization of symptoms of sleep disorders in children with headache. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    • Heng K, Wirrell E. Sleep disturbance in children with migraine. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:761–6. This recent study showed the relationship between headache and sleep disorder. Furthermore, it demonstrated that children with migraine are prone to greater sleep and behavioral disturbances than children without headache; in this view, sleep disorders should be routinely queried and give appropriate advice on sleep hygiene. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Balottin U, Termine C, Nicoli F, Quadrelli M, Ferrari-Ginevra O, Lanzi G. Idiopathic headache in children under six years of age: a follow-up study. Headache. 2005;45(6):705–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guidetti V, Galli F, Fabrizi P, Giannantoni A, Napoli L, Bruni O, et al. Headache and psychiatric comorbidity: clinical aspects and outcome in an 8th years follow-up study. Cephalalgia. 1998;18:455–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Katerji MA, Painter MJ. Infantile migraine presenting as colic. J Child Neurol. 1994;9(3):336–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weissbluth M. Colic. In: Ferber R, Kryger M, editors. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine in the Child. WB Saunders: Philadelphia; 1995. p. 75–8.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guidetti V, Ottaviano S, Pagliarini M. Childhood headache risk: warning signs and symptoms present during the first six months of life. Cephalalgia. 1984;4:237–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Del Bene E. Multiple aspects of headache risk in children. Adv Neurol. 1982;33:187–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lanzi G, Zambrino CA, Balottin U, Tagliasacchi M, Vercelli P, Termine C. Periodic syndrome and migraine in children and adolescents. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1997;18(5):283–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carvalho Dde S, Zukerman E, Hanuch SN, Levyman C, Lima JG. Risk factors in headache in children from 7 to 15. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1987;45(4):371–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Elser JM, Woody RC. Migraine headache in the infant and young child. Headache. 1990;30:366–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hiscock H, Davey MJ. Sleep disorders in infants and children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012. doi:10.1111/jpc.12033 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Iglowstien I, Jenni O, Molinari L, Largo M. Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: reference values and generational trends. Pediatrics. 2003;111:302–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fox AW, Davis RL. Migraine chronobiology. Headache. 1998;38:436–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zurak N. Role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:223–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Leone M, Lucini V, D’Amico D. Twenty-four hour melatonin and cortisol plasma levels in relation to timing of cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 1995;15:224–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Russo PM, Bruni O, Lucidi F, Ferri R, Violani C. Sleep habits and circadian preference in Italian children and adolescents. J Sleep Res. 2007;16(2):163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bruni O, Russo PM, Ferri R, Novelli L, Galli F, Guidetti V. Relationships between headache and sleep in a non-clinical population of children and adolescents. Sleep Med. 2008;9:542–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, Roenneberg T. Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:497–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guidetti V, Bruni O, Violani C, Casiello B, Devoto A, Galli F. Sleep wake cycle variations in migrainous children. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:278. abst.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    • Bursztein C, Steinberg T, Sadeh A. Sleep, sleepiness, and behavior problems in children with headache. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:1012–9. This study is one of the few actigraphic studies, and it shows the importance of assessing sleep, daytime sleepiness, and psychological adjustment in children complaining about headaches as an integral part of their routine assessment. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Guidetti V, Bruni O, Canitano R, Romoli M, Napoli L. Migraine and headache in childhood: sleep disorders and sleep organization. Cephalalgia. 1995;S16:10–2. abst.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Guilleminault C, Eldridge FL, Simmons FB, Dement WC. Sleep apnea in eight children. Pediatrics. 1976;58:23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chervin RD, Dillon JE, Bassetti C, Ganoczy DA, Pituch KJ. Symptoms of sleep disorders, inattention, and hyperactivity in children. Sleep. 1997;20(12):1185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bruni O, Novelli L, Guidetti V, Ferri R. Sleep and headache during adolescence. Adolesc Med. 2010;21:446–56.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mindell JA, Meltzer LJ. Behavioural sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Ann Acad Med. 2008;37:722–8.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    •• Bruni O, Galli F, Guidetti V. Sleep hygiene and migraine in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. 1999;19(S25):58–60. This article offers an alternative approach to the treatment of migraine, introducing a simple modification of sleep behavior without recurring to pharmacological treatment. Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Feikema WJ. Headache and chronic sleep deprivation: an often missed relationship in children and also in adults. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999;143(38):1897–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gans M. Treating migraine by sleep rationing. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1951;113:405–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Peroutka SJ. Dopamine and migraine. Neurology. 1997;49:650–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mascia A, Afra J, Schoenen J. Dopamine and migraine: a review of pharmaceutical, biochemical, neurophysiological and therapeutic data. Cephalalgia. 1998;18:174–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benedetta Bellini
    • 1
  • Sara Panunzi
    • 1
  • Oliviero Bruni
    • 2
  • Vincenzo Guidetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics and Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and OdontoiatryUniversity “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Social and Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and PsychologyUniversity “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations