Current Pain and Headache Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 115–121 | Cite as

Cluster headache and lifestyle habits

  • Markus SchürksEmail author
  • Hans-Christoph Diener


Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among CH patients compared with the general population. Although excessive alcohol consumption was reported in early studies, this was not corroborated more recently. On the contrary, patients with CH seem to avoid alcohol, particularly during active phases, likely due to its ability to trigger attacks. Present studies are purely descriptive. Thus, the associations sketched give no information about the long-term effects of smoking or alcohol consumption on the course of CH.


Alcohol Consumption Cluster Headache Coffee Consumption Lifestyle Habit Excessive Alcohol Consumption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia 2004, 24(Suppl 1):9–160.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bahra A, Goadsby PJ: Diagnostic delays and mismanagement in cluster headache. Acta Neurol Scand 2004, 109:175–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manzoni G, Prusinski A: Cluster headache: introduction. In The Headaches, edn 2. Edited by Olesen J, Welch KMA. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:675–678.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kudrow L: Physical and personality characteristics in cluster headache. Headache 1974, 13:197–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Levi R, Edman GV, Ekbom K, Waldenlind E: Episodic cluster headache. I: Personality and some neuropsychological characteristics in male patients. Headache 1992, 32:119–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Levi R, Edman GV, Ekbom K, Waldenlind E: Episodic cluster headache. II: High tobacco and alcohol consumption in males. Headache 1992, 32:184–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Manzoni GC: Gender ratio of cluster headache over the years: a possible role of changes in lifestyle. Cephalalgia 1998, 18:138–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manzoni GC: Cluster headache and lifestyle: remarks on a population of 374 male patients. Cephalalgia 1999, 19:88–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swanson JW, Yanagihara T, Stang PE, et al.: Incidence of cluster headaches: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology 1994, 44:433–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hannerz J: Symptoms and diseases and smoking habits in female episodic cluster headache and migraine patients. Cephalalgia 1997, 17:499–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Italian Cooperative Study Group on the Epidemiology of Cluster Headache (ICECH): Case-control study on the epidemiology of cluster headache. I: Etiological factors and associated conditions. Neuroepidemiology 1995, 14:123–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bahra A, May A, Goadsby PJ: Cluster headache: a prospective clinical study with diagnostic implications. Neurology 2002, 58:354–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schürks M, Kurth T, de Jesus J, et al.: Cluster headache: clinical presentation, lifestyle features, and medical treatment. Headache 2006, 46:1246–1254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Donnet A, Lanteri-Minet M, Guegan-Massardier E, et al.: Chronic cluster headache: a French clinical descriptive study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007, 78:1354–1358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization: Tobacco cross country profile. Available at: Accessed July 2007.
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services: Smoking and tobacco use. Available at: Accessed July 2007.
  17. 17.
    Millac P, Akhtar N: Cigarette smoking and cluster headaches. Headache 1985, 25:223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rozen TD: Childhood exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and the development of cluster headache. Headache 2005, 45:393–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schürks M, Kurth T, Knorn P, et al.: Predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption among patients with cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2006, 26:623–627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Manzoni GC, Terzano MG, Bono G, et al.: Cluster headache—clinical findings in 180 patients. Cephalalgia 1983, 3:21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations