Current Pain and Headache Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 387–390 | Cite as

Pediatric post-traumatic headache

  • Maria-Carmen B. WilsonEmail author
  • Stanley J. Krolczyk


Post-traumatic headache after craniocerebral trauma is not an uncommon occurrence in children and adolescents. It can occur after mild, moderate, or severe injury. The headache may have features of tension-type headache, migraine, or probable migraine and is rarely seen in isolation. It is often part of a syndrome encompassing a variety of somatic and psychobehavioral symptoms. In time, the headache and accompanying symptoms gradually resolve over a period of 8 to 12 weeks. However, sometimes it may become chronic, requiring a multidimensional management approach including pharmacologic intervention, physical rehabilitation, and cognitive-behavioral therapy as used in the adult population.


Migraine Traumatic Brain Injury Glasgow Coma Scale Head Trauma International Headache Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Lance JW: Mechanism and Management of Headache, edn 3. London: Butterworth; 1974:227–233.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lanser JK, Jennekins-Schinkel A, Peters AC: Headache after closed head injury in children. Headache 1988, 28:176–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haas DC: Chronic post-traumatic headaches classified and compared with natural headaches. Cephalalgia 1996, 16:486–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bettucci D, Aguggia M, Bolamperti L, et al.: Chronic posttraumatic headache associated with minor cranial trauma: a description of cephalalgic patterns. Ital J Neurol Sci 1998, 19:20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McCarthy ML, MacKenzie EJ, Durbin DR, et al.: Healthrelated quality of life during the first year after traumatic brain injury. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006, 160:252–260. This study stresses the importance of HRQOL in the first year after trauma, indicating that moderate or severe brain injury resulted in measurable decreases in children’s HRQOL after injury.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society: The International Classification of Headache Disorders, edn 2. Cephalalgia 2004, 24:160. The IHS has classified acute and chronic headaches after mild, moderate, and severe brain trauma. This Classification is helpful in the diagnosis and research of PTH.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kraus JF, Fife D, Cox P, et al.: Incidence, severity and external causes of pediatric brain injury. Am J Dis Child 1986, 140:687–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evans RW: The post-concussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury. Neurol Clin 1992, 10:815–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Necajauskaite O, Endziniene M, Jureniene K: The prevalence, course and clinical features of post-concussion syndrome in children. Medicina (Kaunas) 2005, 41:457–464. This study investigated 301 children with headache after mild TBI and 301 children with mild body injury without head trauma. No significant differences were found between the groups.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rizzo M, Tranel D: Head Injury and Post Concussive Syndrome. New York: Churchill Livingston; 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Taylor HG, Alden J: Age-related differences in outcomes following childhood brain insults: an introduction and overview. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 1997, 3:555–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Satz P, Zaucha K, McCleary C, et al.: Mild head injury in children and adolescents: a review of studies (1970-1995). Psychol Bull 1997, 122:107–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Satz P: Mild head injury in children and adolescents. Cur Dir Psychol Sci 2001, 10:106–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Korinthenberg R, Schreck J, Wesser J, Lehmkuhl G: Post-traumatic syndrome after minor head injury cannot be predicted by neurological investigations. Brain Dev 2004, 26:113–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walker WC, Seel RT, Curtiss G, Warden DL: Headache after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005, 86:1793–1800. This is an original article that studies the presence of headache after brain trauma and its natural evolution longitudinally.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raieli V, Eliseo M, Pandol. E, et al.: Recurrent and chronic headaches in children below 6 years of age. J Headache Pain 2005, 6:135–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lewis DW, Ashwal S, Dhal G, et al.: Practice parameter: evaluation of children and adolescents with recurrent headaches. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2002, 59:490–498. The Child Neurology Society has developed practice parameters for the evaluation of chidren and adolescents with recurrent headaches. This is an important initiative that recognizes and addresses headaches in the young.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rothner AD: Headaches in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 1999, 8:727–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silberstein S, Lipton R, Goadsby P: Post-traumatic headache. In Headache in Clinical Practice. Edited by Silberstein S, Lipton R, Goadsby P. Oxford: Isis Medical Media; 1998:181–188.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kraus JF, Nourjah P: The epidemiology of mild, uncomplicated brain injury. J Trauma 1988, 28:1637–1643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gennarelli TA: Mechanisms of brain injury. J Emerg Med 1993, 1:5–11.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lyczak P, Lyczak-Rucinska M: Chronic post-traumatic headache and brain perfusion changes assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurol Neurochir Pol 2005, 39:S49-S54. Sophisticated imaging techniques are instrumental in understanding the effect of trauma in the human brain.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Young WB, Hopkins MM, Janyszek B, et al.: Repetitive intravenous DHE in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic headache. Headache 1994, 34:297.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gawel MJ, Rothbart P, Jacobs H: Subcutaneous sumatriptan in the treatment of acute episodes of posttraumatic headache. Headache 1993, 33:96–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sawauchi S, Taya K, Murakami S, et al.: Serum S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase after traumatic brain injury. No Shinkei Geka 2005, 33:1073–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borzy JC, Koch TK, Schimschock JR: Effectiveness of topiramate in the treatment of pediatric chronic daily headache. Pediatr Neurol 2005, 33:314–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andrasik F, Schwartz M: Behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric headache. Behav Modif 2006, 30:93–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kabbouche MA, Powers SW, Vockell AL, et al.: Outcome of a multidisciplinary approach to pediatric migraine at 1, 2, and 5 years. Headache 2005, 45:1298–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations