The Regulation of Marrow Fat by Vitamin D: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
Purpose of Review
To review the available literature regarding a possible relationship between vitamin D and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), and to identify future avenues of research that warrant attention.
Results from in vivo animal and human studies all support the hypothesis that vitamin D can suppress BMAT expansion. This is achieved by antagonizing adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells, through inhibition of PPARγ2 activity and stimulation of pro-osteogenic Wnt signalling. However, our understanding of the functions of BMAT is still evolving, and studies on the role of vitamin D in modulating BMAT function are lacking. In addition, many diseases and chronic conditions are associated with low vitamin D status and low bone mineral density (BMD), but BMAT expansion has not been studied in these patient populations.
Vitamin D suppresses BMAT expansion, but its role in modulating BMAT function is poorly understood.
KeywordsVitamin D Bone marrow fat Bone mineral density PPARγ2 Marrow fat unsaturation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Hanel Sadie-Van Gijsen declares no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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