Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology
Purpose of Review
This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology.
Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. “State of the art” methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities.
While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.
KeywordsBeige cells Bone marrow Brown adipose tissue Cytomegalovirus White adipose tissue
The authors thank Barbara Gawronska-Kozak Ph.D. for her critical review of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Xiying Wu and Smith report a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC.
Jeff Gimble is a co-founder and co-owner of Talaria Antibodies, a polyclonal antibody production company; Obatala Sciences, a fat on a chip technology; and is a co-founder, co-owner, and employee at LaCell LLC. Xiying Wu is a co-founder, co-owner, and R&D Director at LaCell LLC; a co-owner and co-founder of Obatala Sciences; and reports a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC. Stanley Smith reports a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC. Michelle McCarthy, Trivia Frazier, Joanna Bukowska, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, and Bruce Bunnell declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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