Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology
- 323 Downloads
Purpose of Review
This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology.
Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. “State of the art” methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities.
While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.
KeywordsBeige cells Bone marrow Brown adipose tissue Cytomegalovirus White adipose tissue
The authors thank Barbara Gawronska-Kozak Ph.D. for her critical review of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Xiying Wu and Smith report a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC.
Jeff Gimble is a co-founder and co-owner of Talaria Antibodies, a polyclonal antibody production company; Obatala Sciences, a fat on a chip technology; and is a co-founder, co-owner, and employee at LaCell LLC. Xiying Wu is a co-founder, co-owner, and R&D Director at LaCell LLC; a co-owner and co-founder of Obatala Sciences; and reports a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC. Stanley Smith reports a patent on use of adipose cells in therapy in the submission process from LaCell LLC. Michelle McCarthy, Trivia Frazier, Joanna Bukowska, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, and Bruce Bunnell declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 4.Lecka-Czernik B, Stechschulte LA, Czernik PJ, Dowling AR. High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;410:35–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Carey AL, Vorlander C, Reddy-Luthmoodoo M, Natoli AK, Formosa MF, Bertovic DA, et al. Reduced UCP-1 content in in vitro differentiated beige/brite adipocytes derived from preadipocytes of human subcutaneous white adipose tissues in obesity. PLoS One. 2014;9:e91997.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.•• Rahman S, Lu Y, Czernik PJ, Rosen CJ, Enerback S, Lecka-Czernik B. Inducible brown adipose tissue, or beige fat, is anabolic for the skeleton. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2687–701. Highly Important: First study to characterize the role of beige adipocytes in BMAT. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 22.Traktuev DO, Merfeld-Clauss S, Li J, Kolonin M, Arap W, Pasqualini R, et al. A population of multipotent CD34-positive adipose stromal cells share pericyte and mesenchymal surface markers, reside in a periendothelial location, and stabilize endothelial networks. Circ Res. 2008;102:77–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.•• Guimaraes-Camboa N, Cattaneo P, Sun Y, Moore-Morris T, Gu Y, Dalton ND, et al. Pericytes of multiple organs do not behave as mesenchymal stem cells in vivo. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;20:345–59. e5. Highly Important: This study challenges the concept that pericytes and MSC are equivalent. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.• Cypess AM, White AP, Vernochet C, Schulz TJ, Xue R, Sass CA, et al. Anatomical localization, gene expression profiling and functional characterization of adult human neck brown fat. Nat Med. 2013;19:635–9. Important: This study is among the first to provide a detailed analysis of human brown fat. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 42.Gifford A, Towse TF, Walker RC, Avison MJ, Welch EB. Human brown adipose tissue depots automatically segmented by positron emission tomography/computed tomography and registered magnetic resonance images. J Vis Exp: JoVE. 2015.Google Scholar