Current Status of the Female Athlete Triad: Update and Future Directions
Purpose of Review
This review provides an update on the primary clinical sequelae of the Female Athlete Triad.
Scientific advancements have contributed to improve understanding of Triad-related conditions, including leptin’s role as a potential neuroendocrine link between energy status and reproductive function. Use of finite element analysis of HRpQCT imaging has provided a more accurate assessment of bone geometry and bone strength and may be clinically relevant. New perspectives aimed at developing and implementing a multi-disciplinary, personalized approach in the prevention and early treatment of triad-related symptoms are provided.
The Female Athlete Triad is a multi-dimensional condition that affects active women across the lifespan. Energy availability impacts reproductive function and bone with implications for health and performance. Understanding the contributions of each individual component as well as their interconnected effects is necessary for progression and expansion of the Triad literature.
KeywordsFemale athlete triad Energy availability Menstrual cycle Bone health
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kristen Koltun, Clara Etter, Emily Southmayd, and Mary Jane De Souza declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/nation/institutional guidelines).
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance.
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