Vitamin D Deficiency and its Role in Muscle-Bone Interactions in the Elderly
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In this commentary, we focus on common ‘downstream’ links of vitamin D between muscle and bone health. Both direct and indirect effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) link the mutual age-related decline in muscle function and bone density, independent of physical activity. Changes in calcium absorption associated with vitamin D deficiency affect both muscle and bone mass. The age-related decline in vitamin D receptor expression and 1,25(OH)D activity impact on proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor -α and interleukin-6 in skeletal muscle and vitamin D deficiency appears to enhance both bone marrow adipogenesis and intramuscular adipose tissue impacting as reduced functionality in both skeletal tissues. Controversial findings on the role of 1,25(OH)D on skeletal muscle may relate to differences in vitamin D receptor expression throughout different stages of muscle cell differentiation. Prolonged vitamin D insufficiency in the elderly is associated with reductions in both bone mineral density and type 2 muscle fibers with the outcomes of skeletal fragility in combination with reduced muscle power, leading to increased risk of falls and fracture.
KeywordsVitamin D deficiency Bone fractures Muscle Sarcopenia Osteoporosis Interaction Elderly Physical function Review
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Conflict of Interest
K. M. Sanders declares no conflicts of interest.
D. Scott declares no conflicts of interest.
P. R. Ebeling declares no conflicts of interest.
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All studies by the authors involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
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