Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Osteoporotic Fractures
Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess mortality and decreased functional capacity and quality of life. Age-standardized incidence rates of fragility fractures, particularly of the hip and forearm, have been noted to be decreasing in the last decade across many countries with the notable exception of Asia. The causes for the observed changes in fracture risk have not been fully identified but are likely the result of multiple factors, including birth cohort and period effects, increasing obesity, and greater use of anti-osteoporosis medications. Changing rates of fragility fractures would be expected to have an important impact on the burden of osteoporosis.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Fragility fractures Hip fractures Bone mineral density Population studies Temporal trends Incidence rates
The authors would like to thank Ms. Tamara Rader, of the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group, for her assistance with the literature search strategy.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
S.N. Morin discloses that she is a researcher-clinician scholar of the Fonds de Recherche du Québec en Santé. She has received research grants from Amgen and has served as a consultant for Amgen, Novartis, Eli Lilly, and Merck. L.M. Lix discloses that she holds a position as Manitoba Research Chair from the Manitoba Health Research Council. She has received research grants from Amgen.
S.R. Majumdar discloses that he holds the position of Endowed Chair in Patient Health Management (Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry and Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta) and receives salary support as a Health Scholar of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and Alberta Innovates-Health Solutions. He declares no conflicts of interest.
W.D. Leslie has received research grants from Novartis, Amgen, and Genzyme, and is a part of the speaker bureau for Amgen, Eli Lilly, and Novartis.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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