Osteoporosis After Transplantation
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Transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage diseases of kidney, lung, liver, and heart among others. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are serious complications of organ transplantation, particularly in the first post-transplant year. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis following organ transplantation. This review addresses the mechanisms of bone loss that occurs both in the early and late post-transplant periods, including the contribution of the immunosuppressive agents as well as the specific features to bone loss after kidney, lung, liver, cardiac, and bone marrow transplantation. Prevention and treatment for osteoporosis in the transplant recipient are also discussed.