Trabecular bone failure at the microstructural level
Although biomedical imaging technology is now readily available, few attempts have been made to expand the capabilities of these systems by adding not only quantitative but also functional analysis tools combining microimaging with time-lapsed mechanical testing. An area of special interest is multiscale functional imaging of trabecular bone to assess the relative importance of bone “quality” in the assessment of the mechanical competence of bone. First, relevant studies dealing with hierarchical imaging of trabecular bone and classic analyses such as quantitative morphometry and finiteelement analysis to predict bone strength are reviewed. Second, studies are presented investigating failure mechanisms of three-dimensional trabecular bone through dynamic, time-lapsed microimaging, including image-guided techniques developed for this purpose and utilizing microcompression. For the first time, these allow the direct three-dimensional visualization and quantification of failure initiation and progression at the microstructural level.
KeywordsBone Mineral Density Trabecular Bone Bone Strength Ibandronate Bone Microarchitecture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
References and Recommended Reading
- 1.Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy (NGC-1761). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health (NIH); 2000.Google Scholar
- 12.Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, et al.: Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 1999, 282:637–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Rüegsegger P: Bone density measurement. In Osteoporosis: A Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. Edited by Bröll H, Dambacher MA. Basel: Karger; 1996:103–116.Google Scholar
- 44.Hodgskinson R, Currey JD: The effect of variation in structure on the Young’s modulus of cancellous bone: a comparison of human and non-human material. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 1990, 204:115–121.Google Scholar
- 51.Niebur GL, Feldstein MJ, Yuen JC, et al.: High-resolution finite element models with tissue strength asymmetry accurately predict failure of trabecular bone. J Biomech 2000, 33:1575–1583. ilinear constitutive model with asymmetric tissue yield strains in tension and compression was applied to simulate failure in high-resolution,finite-element models of bovine tibial specimens. Findings show that the resulting models can capture the apparent strength behavior of individual trabeculae to an outstanding level of accuracy, suggesting that computational models have reached a level of fidelity that qualifies them as surrogates for destructive mechanical testing of real specimens.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Müller R, Gerber SC, Hayes WC: Micro-compression: a novel technique for the nondestructive assessment of local bone failure. Technol Health Care 1998, 6:433–444. This study shows for the first time that trabecular bone failure can be observed in a time-lapsed fashion on the microstructural level.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 56.Nazarian A, Müller R: Time-lapsed microstructural imaging of bone failure behavior. J Biomech 2004, 37:55–65. Time-lapsed microstructural imaging of bone failure behavior is introduced and validated using a novel micromechanical testing system that facilitates stepwise compression of trabecular bone specimens. The technique allows direct 3-D visualization and quantification of fracture initiation and progression on the microscopic level and relates the global failure properties of trabecular bone to those of the individual trabeculae.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 57.Müller R, Boesch T, Jarak D, et al.: Micro-mechanical evaluation of bone microstructures under load. In Developments in X-Ray Tomography III, vol. 4503. Edited by Bonse U. San Diego, CA: SPIE; 2002:189–200.Google Scholar
- 58.Nagaraja S, Couse TL, Guldberg RE: Trabecular bone microdamage and microstructural stresses under uniaxial compression. J Biomech 2005, 38:707–716. This study demonstrates that the combination of functional imaging and image-based finite-element analysis allows accurate prediction of regions of trabecular bone microdamage as evaluated by histologic damage labeling. More data of this type are needed to improve understanding of factors contributing to initiation of microdamage and to establish local failure criteria for normal and diseased trabecular bone.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar