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Prognostic Biomarkers for Melanoma Immunotherapy


Purpose of Review

Recent developments in immunotherapy have transformed the landscape of melanoma therapy. Here, we review markers for response to immunotherapy.

Recent Findings

Current immunotherapies disable immune checkpoints on T cells and other immune cells and allow immune rejection of tumor. This process depends crucially on a preexisting response to the development of the melanoma. Here we describe the complexity of the anti-tumor immune response and the links to the development of markers that are currently used or under investigation in the clinic.


We describe immune response biomarkers along with new developments that could translate into advances.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Correspondence to Adil I. Daud.

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Christopher G. Twitty declares that he has no conflict of interest. Laura A. Huppert declares that she has no conflict of interest. Adil I. Daud has received research funding from Merck, OncoSec, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Incyte, Checkmate, and Pfizer.

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Twitty, C.G., Huppert, L.A. & Daud, A.I. Prognostic Biomarkers for Melanoma Immunotherapy. Curr Oncol Rep 22, 25 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-020-0886-z

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  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Programmed death-1 (PD-1)
  • Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)
  • Exhausted T cells (Tex)
  • Tumor microenvironment (TME)
  • Memory T cells (Tmem)
  • Tumor mutation burden
  • Circulating tumor DNA