Current Oncology Reports

, 21:5 | Cite as

Management of Residual Mass in Germ Cell Tumors After Chemotherapy

  • Costantine AlbanyEmail author
  • Kenneth Kesler
  • Clint Cary
Genitourinary Cancers (DP Petrylak and JW Kim, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Genitourinary Cancers


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to educate medical oncologists on the management of patients with residual germ cell tumors and the role of surgical resection after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Recent Findings

Patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer and residual enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes > 1 cm following induction chemotherapy with normal tumor markers should undergo a post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. All patients with primary mediastinal non-seminoma should undergo surgical resection of the mediastinal mass post-chemotherapy. These are complex surgeries and require expert surgeons in high-volume centers. Patients with advanced testicular seminoma who have residual masses less than 3 cm after chemotherapy can be observed without further intervention. Patients with a residual mass > 3 cm should be evaluated with PET scan after 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Residual mass with negative PET scan can be followed by surveillance while a positive PET scan requires further work up to rule out active disease.


Chemotherapy Residual mass Testis cancer Primary mediastinal Germ cell tumor Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection Seminoma Non-seminoma Teratoma 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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