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Current Oncology Reports

, 21:4 | Cite as

Cytokine Release Syndrome With the Novel Treatments of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Treatment

  • Ibrahim Aldoss
  • Samer K. Khaled
  • Elizabeth Budde
  • Anthony S. SteinEmail author
Leukemia (A Aguayo, Section Editor)
  • 153 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Leukemia

Abstract

Purpose of Review

T cell-based therapies (blinatumomab and CAR T cell therapy) have produced unprecedented responses in relapsed and refractory (r/r) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but is accompanied with significant toxicities, of which one of the most common and serious is cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Here we will review the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of CRS.

Recent Findings

Efforts have been initiated to define and grade cytokine release syndrome (CRS), to identify patients at risk, to describe biomarkers that predict onset and severity, to understand the pathophysiology, and to prevent and treat severe cases to reduce T cell immunotherapy-related morbidity and mortality.

Summary

Optimizing the timing of T cell-based therapies in ALL, identifying new biomarkers, and investigating novel anti-cytokine agents that have anti-CRS activity are likely to be fruitful avenues of study.

Keywords

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Cytokine release syndrome Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy Immunotherapy Blinatumomab 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ibrahim Aldoss declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Samer K. Khaled has received compensation from Juno Therapeutics for service as a consultant.

Elizabeth Budde declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Anthony S. Stein has received compensation from Amgen and Celgene for service on speakers’ bureaus.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim Aldoss
    • 1
  • Samer K. Khaled
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Budde
    • 1
  • Anthony S. Stein
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Gehr Family Center for Leukemia ResearchCity of HopeDuarteUSA

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