The Impact of Obesity on Breast Cancer
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances—such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation. Here we will review recent advances in our understanding of the complex signaling pathways underlying the obesity-cancer link. An improved understanding of these processes is anticipated to propel novel and effective intervention strategies to reduce the global obesity-cancer burden.
KeywordsObesity Inflammation Adipose tissue Insulin Metabolic syndrome Breast cancer
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Conflict of Interest
Daniel F. Argolo, Clifford A. Hudis, and Neil M. Iyengar declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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