Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer: the Emerging Role of PD-1 and PD-L1
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Purpose of Review
The purpose of the review is to summarize the data regarding PD-L1 expression in breast cancer and the results of first clinical trials with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous across primary breast cancers, and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the presence of poor-prognosis features such as high grade, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple-negative (TN), basal, HER2-enriched). Early phase clinical trials using PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors alone or in combination have shown objective tumor responses and durable long-term disease control, in heavily pre-treated patients, notably in the TN subtype.
Blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 shows impressive antitumor activity in some subsets of breast cancer patients. Many clinical trials are ongoing in the metastatic and neoadjuvant setting, alone and in combination with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiotherapy, and/or other immune therapy. The identification of biomarkers predictive for a clinical benefit is warranted.
KeywordsBreast cancer Expression Immune response Monoclonal antibodies PD-1 PD-L1
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
François Bertucci declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Anthony Gonçalves has received research support through grants from Novartis, Roche, and Eisai; has received compensation from Roche and Eisai for service as a consultant; and has received non-financial support from Novartis, Roche, Eisai, Amgen, and Pfizer.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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