Current Oncology Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 500–508

Checkpoint Modulation in Melanoma: An Update on Ipilimumab and Future Directions

  • David B. Page
  • Michael A. Postow
  • Margaret K. Callahan
  • Jedd D. Wolchok
Melanoma (KB Kim, Section Editor)


Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, was the first therapy demonstrated to improve overall survival in melanoma. Since ipilimumab’s approval by the FDA in 2011, a wealth of data has amassed, helping clinicians to optimize its use. We have learned how to mitigate the adverse effects of ipilimumab, identified its effects in melanoma subpopulations such as those with brain metastases, uveal melanoma, and mucosal melanoma, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, and investigated its use in combination with other therapeutic modalities. These discoveries have paved the way for rapid development of second-generation immunomodulatory antibodies such as inhibitors of the programmed cell death 1 receptor axis. These new agents hold promise as monotherapy, but perhaps the greatest allure lies in the possibility of combining these agents in synergistic multidrug regimens.


Ipilimumab Checkpoint Immunotherapy Melanoma Anti-programmed cell death 1 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Page
    • 1
  • Michael A. Postow
    • 1
  • Margaret K. Callahan
    • 1
  • Jedd D. Wolchok
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

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