Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium in Severe Neurological Injury
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Purpose of Review
Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a poorly recognized cardiac manifestation of neurological illness. This review addresses the contemporary understanding of NSM pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical management.
While the precise pathophysiology and diagnosis remain unclear, NSM is phenotypically atypical stress cardiomyopathy that can be partially attributed to excess catecholaminergic toxicity. NSM is a diagnosis of exclusion where electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently abnormal. Clinical expertise is crucial to evaluate and differentiate NSM from acute coronary syndrome and in the evaluation of potential cardiac transplantation donors after unsalvageable severe neurological injury.
Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a relatively common and clinically impactful condition. More research is needed, particularly to refine clinical prognostication of NSM and rule out intrinsic cardiac injury in order to optimize donor candidacy in the event of brain death.
KeywordsNeurogenic stunned myocardium Stress cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy Subarachnoid hemorrhage Severe traumatic brain injury
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Benjamin B. Kenigsberg, Christopher F. Barnett, Jeffrey C. Mai, and Jason J. Chang each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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