Updates in the Diagnosis and Management of Giant Cell Arteritis
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Purpose of Review
Giant cell arteritis is a systemic large vessel vasculitis that affects the older population and can cause progressive and at times, devastating complications including vision loss. While this has been commonly diagnosed and treated among vasculitides, the treatment options are limited and can have long-term adverse effects. The purpose of our review on GCA is to identify and discuss the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of GCA as they relate to the most recent data. The review will describe any new data on the diagnosis and treatment of this systemic large vessel vasculitis.
The latest data suggests that the mainstay of treatment of GCA remains glucocorticoids but alternate agents are being identified and used in an attempt to reduce the cumulative exposure to glucocorticoids and reduce treatment-related adverse effects while managing and maintaining remission of this systemic disease.
There is much more information to collect in terms of identification and standardization of the optimal length of time to treat with glucocorticoids as well as regarding the long-term efficacy of alternate treatments. In addition, investigation continues to identify measureable risk factors to predict outcomes of individual patients with this diagnosis.
KeywordsGiant cell arteritis Polymyalgia rheumatica Chronic glucocorticoid use Tocilizumab Methotrexate
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Surabhi Uppal, Mohanad Hadi, and Sheetal Chhaya each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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