Sleep Complaints, Sleep and Breathing Disorders in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2
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Purpose of Review
To update the current knowledge concerning sleep complaints and breathing disorders in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and to better understand if sleep and breathing symptoms may add a further clinical definition of DM2.
Although DM2 has been poorly evaluated, the most relevant sleep disorders are sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) (37.5–66.7%) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) (50–60%). Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) is not consistent with SDB, and a large percentage of patients with sleep complaints (58–69%) report pain. In addition, respiratory dysfunctions are reported in 6 to 15% of DM2 patients, albeit few data are available regarding pulmonary restriction, hypoventilation, and non-invasive ventilation (NIV).
SDB, RLS, and pain may contribute to sleep fragmentation and EDS in DM2. In addition, few studies report hypoventilation and pulmonary restriction, although there are no studies at all on NIV, except for limited clinical experiences. These findings suggest performing a careful pulmonary examination and NIV when required. Furthermore, sleep studies and respiratory evaluation should be recommended if OSA or respiratory muscle dysfunctions are suspected. A large polysomnographic study should be performed to clarify the link between sleep disorders, pain, and sleep disruption in DM2.
KeywordsMyotonic dystrophy type 2 Excessive daytime somnolence Sleep Sleep-disordered breathing Hypoventilation Fatigue Pain
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Andrea Romigi reports other from EISAI, personal fees from SANDOZ, personal fees from Fidia Farmaceutici, outside the submitted work. Giuseppe Vitrani received a personal fee from Fidia Farmaceutici outside the submitted work. Enrica Bonanni, Marco Caccamo, Diego Centonze, Michelangelo Maestri, Carmine Nicoletta, Alessandro Sanduzzi, and Gabriele Siciliano each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
The article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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