Neurologic Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing problem worldwide and is now being recognized as a global health burden particularly for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The incidence of stroke increases in the presence of CKD with a 3-fold increased rate reported in ESRD. Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke in CKD. There is conflicting observational evidence regarding benefit of anticoagulation in CKD for prevention of stroke in AF as risk of bleeding is high. Overall, anticoagulant in CKD may be beneficial in appropriate patients with meticulous monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR). Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in CKD. Appropriate drug dosing, awareness of potential side effects of medications, prompt diagnosis, and treatment are essential in preventing long-term morbidity and mortality.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Stroke Atrial fibrillation Anticoagulation Cognitive impairment Uremia Drug toxicity
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Kavitha Vellanki and Vinod K. Bansal declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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