Advertisement

Pediatric Migraine Variants: a Review of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

  • Ana Marissa Lagman-Bartolome
  • Christine Lay
Headache (RB Halker, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Headache

Abstract

Pediatric migraine variants, previously known as childhood periodic syndromes, migraine equivalents, or migraine precursors, are a group of periodic or paroxysmal disorders occurring in patients who also have migraine with or without aura, or who have an increased likelihood of developing migraine. They have common key clinical features including periodic or paroxysmal character, normal neurological examination between attacks, family history of migraine, and clinical evolution to classic types of migraine. This article aims to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of the pediatric migraine variants including abdominal migraine, benign paroxysmal vertigo, cyclic vomiting syndrome, and benign paroxysmal torticollis as well as the episodic syndromes that may lead to migraine, infantile colic, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, and vestibular migraine.

Keywords

Childhood periodic syndromes Cyclic vomiting syndrome Abdominal migraine Benign paroxysmal torticollis Benign paroxysmal vertigo Infantile colic Alternating hemiplegia of childhood Vestibular migraine Motion sickness 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Ana Marissa Lagman-Bartolome and Christine Lay declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.•
    Gelfand AA. Migraine and childhood periodic syndromes in children and adolescents. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26:262–8. A review of the different periodic syndromes in children.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wyllie WG, Schlesinger B. The periodic group of disorders in childhood. Br J Child DIs. 1933;30:1–21.Google Scholar
  3. 3.••
    Teixeira K, Montenegro MA and Guerreiro M. Migraine equivalents in childhood. J Child Neurol. 2013;00:1–4. A comprehensive review of the different migraine variants in children.Google Scholar
  4. 4.•
    Rosman NP, Douglass LM, Sharif UM, Paolini J. The neurology of benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: report of 10 new cases and review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:155–60. A good review of literature of patients with BPT.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuenca-Leon E, Corominas R, Fernandez-Castillo N, et al. Genetic analysis of 27 Spanish patients with hemiplegic migraine, basilar-type migraine and childhood periodic syndromes. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1039–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.••
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia. 2013;33: 653–655, 794-79(6629–808). Provides a comprehensive diagnostic criterion for the different pediatric migraine variants. Google Scholar
  7. 7.•
    Li BUK, Lefevre F, Chelimsky GG, et al. NASPGHAN Consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of CVS. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47(3):379–93. Provides a consensus statement on evaluation and treatment of cyclical vomiting syndrome in children.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lindley KJ, Andrews PL. Pathogenesis and treatment of cyclical vomiting. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41(Suppl1):S38–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.•
    Drumm BR, Bourke B, Drummond L, et al. Cyclical vomiting syndrome in children: a prospective study. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:922–7. A prospective study on epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of children with cyclical vomiting syndrome.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Withers GD, Silburn SR, Forbes DA. Precipitants and aetiology of cyclical vomiting syndrome. Acta Pediatr. 1998;87:272–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sato T, Igarashi N, Minami S, et al. Recurrent attacks of vomiting, hypertension and psychotic depression: a syndrome of periodic catecholamine and prostaglandin discharge. Acta Endrocrinol. 1988;117:189–97.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li BU, Fleisher DR. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: features to be explained by a pathophysiologic model. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44:13S–8S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin YP, Ni YH, Weng WC, Lee WT. Cyclic vomiting syndrome and migraine in children. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;10(6):383–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee LYW, Abbott L, Mahlanug B, Moodie SJ, Anderson S. The management of cyclic vomiting syndrome: a systematic review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;24:1001–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Symon D, Rusell G. The relationship between cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21 Suppl 1:S42–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.•
    Abu-Arafeh I, Russel G. Cyclical vomiting syndrome in children: a population-based study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21(4):454–8. Provides the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of children with cyclical vomiting syndrome.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cullen KH, MacDOnald WB. The periodic syndrome: its nature and prevalence. Med J Aust. 1963;2:167–73.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tache Y. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: the corticotropin-releasing-factor hypothesis. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(8 Suppl):79S–86S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rashed H, Abell TL, Familoni BO, et al. Autonomic function in cyclic vomiting syndrome and classic migraine. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(8 Suppl):74S–8S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boles RG, Chun N, Senadheera D, et al. Cyclic vomiting syndrome and mitochondrial DNA mutations. Lancet. 1997;350:1299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rinaldo P. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders and cyclic vomiting syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(8 Suppl):97S–102S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Catto-Smith AG, Ranuh R. Abdominal migraine and cyclical vomiting. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2003;12(4):254–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kumar N, Bashar Q, Reddy N, et al. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS): is there a difference based on onset of symptoms—pediatric versus adult? BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:52.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fitzpatrick E, Bourke B, Drumm B, Rowland M. Outcome for children with cyclical vomiting syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:1001–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dignan F, Symon DN, AbuArafeh K, et al. The prognosis of cyclical vomiting syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(1):55–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cuvellier JC, Lepine A. Childhood periodic syndromes. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.•
    Pacheva IH, Ivanov IS. Migraine variants: occurrence in pediatric neurology practice. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:1775–83. Provides a review of epidemiology of different migraine variants.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fleisher DR, Gornowicz B, Adams K, et al. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in 41 adults: the illness, the patients, and problems of management. BMC Med. 2005;3:20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Benson JM, Zorn SL, Book LS. Sumatriptan in the treatment of cyclic vomiting. Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29:997–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hikita T, Hiroko K, Kaneko S, et al. Sumatriptan as a treatment for cyclical vomiting syndrome: a clinical trial. Cephalalgia. 2010;314(4):504–7.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kothare SV. Efficacy of flunarizine in the prophylaxis of cyclical vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2005;9:23–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Liao KY, Chang FY, Wu LT, Wu TC. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in Taiwanese Children. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110:14–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lewis DW, Bigal ME, Winner P. Migraine and the childhood periodic syndromes. In: Winner P, Lewis DW, Rothner AD, editors. Headache in children and adolescence. 2nd ed. Ontario: B.C.Decker; 2008. p. 37–55.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Collins BS, Thomas DW. Chronic abdominal pain. Pediatr Rev. 2007;28(9):323–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thiesen PN. Recurrent abdominal pain. Pediatr Rev. 2002;23:39–46.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mortimer MJ, Kay J, Jaron A. Clinical epidemiology of childhood abdominal migraine in an urban general practice. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1993;35(3):243–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abu-Arafeh I, Russell G. Prevalence and clinical features of abdominal migraine compared with those of migraine headache. Arch Dis Child. 1995;72:413–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carson L, Lewis D, Tsou M, et al. Abdominal migraine: an under-diagnosed cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Headache. 2011;51:707–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Symon DN, Russell G. Double blind placebo controlled trial of pizotifen syrup in the treatment of abdominal migraine. Arch Dis Child. 1995;72:48–50.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.•
    Russell G, Abu-Arafeh I, Symon D. Abdominal migraine: evidence for existence and treatment options. Pediatr Drugs. 2002;4(1):1–8. A review of pathophysiology and treatment of abdominal migraine.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bentley D, Kehely A, Al-Bayaty M, Michie CA. Abdominal migraine as a cause of vomiting in children: a clinician’s view. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21 Suppl 1:S49–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tan V, Sahami AR, Peebles R, Shaw RJ. Abdominal migraine and treatment with intravenous valproic acid. Psychomatics. 2006;47:353–5.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Weydert JA, Ball TM, Davis MF. Systematic review of treatments for recurrent abdominal pain. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e1–e11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saps M, Li BU. Chronic abdominal pain of functional origin in children. Pediatr Ann. 2006;35(4):246–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bremner AR, Sandhu BK. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood: the functional element. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:375–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.•
    Scicchitano B, Humphreys G, Mitton SG, Jaiganesh T. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review. Pediatr Health Med Ther. 2014;5:73–81. A comprehensive review of evaluation and treatment of abdominal migraine.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Catala-Beauchamp AI, Gleason RP. Abdominal migraine in children: Is it all in their heads? J Nurs Pract. 2012;8(1):19–26.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huertas-Ceballos A, Logan S, Bennet C, MacArthur C. Pharmacological interventions for recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;1:CD003017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kakisaka Y, Wakusawa K, Haginoya K, et al. Efficacy of sumatriptan in two pediatric cases with abdominal pain-related-functional gastrointestinal disorders: does the mechanism overlap that of migraine? J Child Neurol. 2010;25:234–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Worawattanakul M, Rhoads JM, LIchtman SN, et al. Abdominal migraine: prophylactic treatment and follow-up. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999;28:37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.•
    Abu-Arafeh I, Russell G. Paroxysmal vertigo as a migraine equivalent in children: a population-based study. Cephalalgia. 1995;15:22–5. A population-based study on epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of paroxysmal vertigo in children.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.•
    Russell G, Abu-Arafeh I. Paroxysmal vertigo in children-an epidemiological study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;49(Suppl1):S105–7. Provides epidemiological data of paroxysmal vertigo in children.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Batuecas-Caletrio A, Martin-Sanchez V, Cordero-Civantos C, et al. Is benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood a migraine precursor? Eur J Pediatr Neurol. 2013;17:397–400.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marcelli V, Furia T, Marciano E. Vestibular pathways involvement in children with migraine: a neuro-otological study. Headache. 2010;50(1):71–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.••
    Marcelli V, Russo A, Cristiano E, Tessitore A. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: a 10-year observational follow-up. Cephalalgia.2014;0(0):1-7. A most recent article discussing the long-term outcome of benign paroxysmal vertigo . Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lindskog U, Odkvist L, Noaksson L, Wallquist J. Benign paroxysmal vertigo in childhood: a long term follow-up. Headache. 1999;39:33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Koehler B. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: a migraine equivalent. Eur J Pediatr. 1980;134:149–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Krams B, Echene B, Leydet J, Rivier F and Roubertie A. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: long-term outcome. Cephalalgia. 31:439–443.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Drigo P, Carli G, Laverda AM. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood. Brain Dev. 2001;23:38–41.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mira E, Piacentino G, Lanzi G, Ballottin U. Benign paroxysmal vertigo in childhood. Diagnostic significance of vestibular examination and headache provocation tests. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1984;406:271–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lanzi G, Balottin U, Fazzi E, Tagliasacchi M, Manfrin M, Mira E. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: a long-term follow-up. Cephalalgia. 1994;14:458–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanukoglu A, Somekh E, Fried D. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy. Clin Pediatr. 1984;23:272–4.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cohen HA, Nussinovitch M, Ashkenasi A, et al. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy. Pediatr Neurol. 1993;9:488–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.•
    Al-Twaijri WA, Shevell MI. Pediatric migraine equivalents: occurrence and clinical features in practice. Pediatr Neurol. 2002;26:365–8. A review of epidemiology and clinical features of patients with pediatric migraine variants seen in clinical practice.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bonnet C, Roubertie A, Doummar D, et al. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood. Mov Disord. 2010;25(10):1317–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Giffin NJ, Benton S, Goadsby PJ. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: four new cases and linkage to CACNA1A mutation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44:490–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vila-Pueyo M, Gene GG, Flotats-Bastardes M, et al. A loss-of-function CACNA1A mutation causing benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Eur J Pediatr Neurol. 2014;18:430–3.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dale RC, Gardiner A, Antony J, Houlden H. Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:958–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dunn DW, Snyder CH. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood. Am J Dis Child. 1976;130:1099–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Castro-Rodriguez JA, Stern DA, Halonen M, et al. Relation between infantile colic and asthma/atopy: a prospective study in an unselected population. Pediatrics. 2001;108:878–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.••
    Gelfand AA, Goadsby PJ, Allen IE. The relationship between migraine and infant colic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2014;0(00):1–10. An extensive systematic review and meta-analysis providing evidence of the relationship of infant colic and migraine.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lucassen PL, Assendelft WJ, van Eijk JT, et al. Systematic review of the occurrence of infantile colic in the community. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84:398–403.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jan MM, Al-Buhairi AR. Is infantile colic a migraine related phenomenon? Clin Pediatr. 2001;40:295–7.Google Scholar
  74. 74.•
    Lucassen PL, Assendelft WJJ, Gubbels JW, et al. Effectiveness of treatments for infantile colic: systematic review. Br Med J. 1998;316:1563–9. A good systematic review of treatments for infantile colic.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Algranati PS, Dworkin PH. Infancy problem behaviors. Pediatr Rev. 1992;13:1–8.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bruni O, Fabrizi P, Ottaviano S, et al. Prevalence of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence with headache: a case–control study. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:492–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Romanello S, Spiri D, Marcuzzi E, et al. Association between childhood migraine and history of infantile colic. JAMA. 2013;309:1607–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Epstein LG, Zee PC. Infantile colic and migraine. JAMA. 2013;309:1636–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ho TW, Edvinsson L, Goadsby PJ. CGRP and its receptors provide new insights into migraine pathophysiology. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010;6(10):573–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Engel MA, Becker C, Reeh PW, Neurath MF. Role of sensory neurons in colitis: increasing evidence for a neuroimmune link in the gut. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17(4):1030–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Verret S, Steele JC. Alternating hemiplegia in childhood: a report of eight patients with complicated migraine beginning in infancy. Pediatrics. 1971;47:675–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Neville BR, Ninan M. The treatment and management of alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:777–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bourgeois M, Aicardi J, Goutieres F. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. J Pediatr. 1993;122:673–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.••
    Mikati MA, Kramer U, Zupanc ML, et al. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: clinical manifestations and long-term outcome. Pediatr Neurol. 2000;23:134–41. A comprehensive review of clinical manifestations of long-term outcome of AHC.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.•
    Sweney MT, Silver K, Gerard-Blanluet M, et al. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: early characteristics and evolution of a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e534–41. A review of the neurodevelopmental outcome of alternating hemiplegia of childhood.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tenney JR, Schapiro MB. Child neurology: alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Neurology. 2010;74:e57–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.•
    Panagiotakaki E, Gobbi G, Neville B, et al. Evidence of a non-progressive course of alternating hemiplegia of childhood: study of a large cohort of children and adults. Brain. 2010;133:3598–610. A large cohort study of 157 patients (children and adults) with AHC presenting the natural course of the disorder with evolution of paroxysmal events and neurological symptoms and their long-term outcome.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Krägeloh I, Aicardi J. Alternating hemiplegia in infants: report of five cases. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1980;22(6):784–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sakuragawa N, Arima M, Matsumoto S. Nationwide investigation of actual conditions of alternating hemiplegia of children in Japan (in Japanese). Nippon Shonika Gakkai Zasshi (Tokyo). 1988;92:892–8.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalalgia. 1988;8 Suppl 7:1–96.Google Scholar
  91. 91.•
    Kansagra S, Mikati MA, Vigevano F. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;112:821–6. A comprehensive review of AHC including diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chi L, Xiu-he Z, Liu X, et al. Alternating hemipelgia of childhood in Chinese following long-term treatment with flunarizine and topiramate. Int J Neurosci. 2012;11:506–10.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hosking GP, Cavanagh NP, Wilson J. Alternating hemiplegia: complicated migraine of infancy. Arch Dis Child. 1978;53:656–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gordon N. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995;37(5):464–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Saito Y, Inui T, Sakakibara T, et al. Evolution of hemiplegic attacks and epileptic seizures in alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Epilepsy Res. 2010;90:248–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rinalduzzi S, Valeriani M, Vigevano F. Brainstem dysfunction in alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a neurophysiological study. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:511–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kannavakis E, Xaidara A, Papadimitriou A, et al. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a syndrome inherited with an autosomal dominant trait. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003;5:833–6.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Swoboda KJ, Kanavakis E, Xaidara A, et al. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood or familial hemiplegic migraine? A novel ATP1A2 mutation. Ann Neurol. 2004;55:884–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    de Vries B, Stam AH, Beker F, et al. CACNA1A mutation linking hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:887–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Heinzen EL, Swadoba KJ, Hitomi Y, et al. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1030–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rosewich H, Thiele H, Ohlenbusch A, et al. Heterozygous de novo mutations in ATP1A3 in patients with alternating hemipelgia of childhood: a whole genome sequencing gene identification study. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:764–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Boelman C, Lagman-Bartolome AM, MacGregor D, et al. Identical ATP1A3 mutation causes alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism phenotypes. Pediatr Neurol. 2013;51:850–3.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ishii A, Saito Y, Mitsui J, et al. Identification of ATP1A3 mutations by exome sequencing as the cause of alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Japanese patients. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56120.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hoei-Hansen CE, Dali C, Lyngbye TJB, Duno M, Uldall P. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Denmark: clinical manifestations and ATP1A3 mutation status. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2014;18:50–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jiang WJ, Chi ZF, Ma L, et al. Topiramate: a new agent for patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Neuropediatrics. 2006;37:229–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Neuhauser H, Radtke A, von Brevern M, et al. Migrainous vertigo: prevalence and impact on quality of life. Neurology. 2006;67:1028–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.••
    Neuhauser H, Leopold M, von Brevern M, Arnold G, Lempert T. The interrelations of migraine, vertigo, and migrainous vertigo. Neurology. 2001;56(4):436–41. This is one of the most significant papers discussing the overlap of migraine and vertigo and the approach to its classification.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gioacchini FM, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Kaleci S, Magliulo G, Re M. Prevalence and diagnosis of vestibular disorders in children: a review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78:718–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Cutrer FM, Baloh RW. Migraine-associated dizziness. Headache. 1992;32(6):300–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cass SP, Ankerstjerne JKP, Yetiser S, et al. Migraine-related vestibulopathy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1997;106:182–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dieterich M, Brandt T. Episodic vertigo related to migraine (90 cases): vestibular migraine? J Neurol. 1999;246(10):883–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.•
    Lempert T, Olesen J, Furman J, et al. Vestibular migraine: diagnostic criteria. Consensus document of the Bárány Society and the International Headache Society. J Vest Res. 2012;22:167–72. This paper presents the diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, jointly formulated by the Committee for Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society and the Migraine Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (HIS).Google Scholar
  113. 113.•
    Lempert T. Vestibular migraine. Semin Neurol. 2013;33:212–8. An up-to-date review article on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of vestibular migraine.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.•
    Shin JH, Kim YK, Kim HJ, Kim JS. Altered brain metabolism in vestibular migraine: comparison of interictal and ictal findings. Cephalalgia. 2014;34(1):58–67. First report of functional imaging of the brain during an attack of vestibular migraine.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lee H, Jen JC, Wang H, et al. A genome-wide linkage scan of familial benign recurrent vertigo: linkage to 22q12 with evidence of heterogeneity. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15(2):251–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Oh AK, Lee H, Jen JC, Corona S, Jacobson KM, Baloh RW. Familial benign recurrent vertigo. Am J Med Genet. 2001;100(4):287–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bahmad Jr F, DePalma SR, Merchant SN, et al. Locus for familial migrainous vertigo disease maps to chromosome 5q35. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118(9):670–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Whitney SL, Wrisley DM, Brown KE, Furman JM. Physical therapy for migraine-related vestibulopathy and vestibular dysfunction with history of migraine. Laryngoscope. 2000;110(9):1528–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Reploeg MD, Goebel JA. Migraine-associated dizziness: patient characteristics and management options. Otol Neurotol. 2002;23(3):364–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Neuhauser H, Radtke A, von Brevern M, Lempert T. Zolmitriptan for treatment of migrainous vertigo: a pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2003;60(5):882–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bisdorff AR. Treatment of migraine related vertigo with lamotrigine an observational study. Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb. 2004;2:103–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Carmona S, Settecase N. Use of topiramate (Topamax) in a subgroup of migraine-vertigo patients with auditory symptoms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1039:517–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Iwasaki S, Ushio M, Chihara Y, Ito K, Sugasawa K, Murofushi T. Migraine-associated vertigo: clinical characteristics of Japanese patients and effect of lomerizine, a calcium channel antagonist. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2007;559:45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fotuhi M, Glaun B, Quan SY, Sofare T. Vestibular migraine: a critical review of treatment trials. J Neurol. 2009;256(5):711–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lepcha A, Amalanathan S, Augustine AM, Tyagi AK, Balraj A. Flunarizine in the prophylaxis of migrainous vertigo: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Arch Otorhinolayngol. 2014;271(11):2931–6.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Radtke A, von Brevern M, Neuhauser H, Hottenrott T, Lempert T. Vestibular migraine: long-term follow-up of clinical symptoms and vestibulo-cochlear findings. Neurology. 2012;79(15):1607–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Headache Medicine, Pediatric Neurology, Hospital for Sick ChildrenUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Centre for HeadacheWomen’s College HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations