Advertisement

Clinical Utility of Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (oVEMPs)

  • Konrad P. WeberEmail author
  • Sally M. Rosengren
Neuro-Ophthalmology (A Kawasaki, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neuro-Ophthalmology

Abstract

Over the last years, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have been established as clinical tests of otolith function. Complementary to the cervical VEMPs, which assess mainly saccular function, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs) test predominantly utricular otolith function. oVEMPs are elicited either with air-conducted (AC) sound or bone-conducted (BC) skull vibration and are recorded from beneath the eyes during up-gaze. They assess the vestibulo-ocular reflex and are a crossed excitatory response originating from the inferior oblique eye muscle. Enlarged oVEMPs have proven to be sensitive for screening of superior canal dehiscence, while absent oVEMPs indicate a loss of superior vestibular nerve otolith function, often seen in vestibular neuritis (VN) or vestibular Schwannoma.

Keywords

Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential oVEMP Vestibulo-ocular reflex Otolith Utricle 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Konrad P. Weber has received a grant from the Forschungskredit of the University of Zurich.

Sally M. Rosengren has received grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) and the Brain Foundation of Australia.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Colebatch JG, Halmagyi GM, Skuse NF. Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57(2):190–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosengren SM, McAngus Todd NP, Colebatch JG. Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116(8):1938–48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2005.03.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Aw ST, Colebatch JG. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) produced by air- and bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(2):381–90. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2006.09.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Welgampola MS, Migliaccio AA, Myrie OA, Minor LB, Carey JP. The human sound-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex and its electromyographic correlate. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120(1):158–66. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2008.06.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Govender S, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG. The effect of gaze direction on the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential produced by air-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120(7):1386–91. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.04.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Murnane OD, Akin FW, Kelly KJ, Byrd S. Effects of stimulus and recording parameters on the air conduction ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(7):469–80. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.22.7.7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chihara Y, Iwasaki S, Ushio M, Murofushi T. Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials by air-conducted sound: another clinical test for vestibular function. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(12):2745–51. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2007.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iwasaki S, McGarvie LA, Halmagyi GM, Burgess AM, Kim J, Colebatch JG, et al. Head taps evoke a crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex. Neurology. 2007;68(15):1227–9. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000259064.80564.21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.•
    Weber KP, Rosengren SM, Michels R, Sturm V, Straumann D, Landau K. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex. J Physiol. 2012;590(Pt 13):3091–101. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.226225. Based on simultaneous needle and surface recordings, the study identified the inferior oblique as the eye muscle of origin of the oVEMP. The study for the first time characterized the single motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG, Straumann D, Weber KP. Why do oVEMPs become larger when you look up? Explaining the effect of gaze elevation on the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124(4):785–91. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Curthoys IS, Vulovic V, Sokolic L, Pogson J, Burgess AM. Irregular primary otolith afferents from the guinea pig utricular and saccular maculae respond to both bone conducted vibration and to air conducted sound. Brain Res Bull. 2012;89(1–2):16–21. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.07.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhu H, Tang X, Wei W, Maklad A, Mustain W, Rabbitt R, et al. Input-output functions of vestibular afferent responses to air-conducted clicks in rats. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol JARO. 2014;15(1):73–86. doi: 10.1007/s10162-013-0428-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Curthoys IS, Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Ushio M, McGarvie LA, Burgess AM. The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(3):611–6. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.07.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Govender S, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG. Vestibular neuritis has selective effects on air- and bone-conducted cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(6):1246–55. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.12.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iwasaki S, Chihara Y, Smulders YE, Burgess AM, Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS, et al. The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. 2009; 2009/02/13 (3):588-593Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shin BS, Oh SY, Kim JS, Kim TW, Seo MW, Lee H, et al. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in acute vestibular neuritis. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(2):369–75. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.05.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iwasaki S, Smulders YE, Burgess AM, McGarvie LA, MacDougall HG, Halmagyi GM, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. 2008; 2008/07/22 (9):2135-47.Google Scholar
  18. 18.•
    Chou CH, Hsu WC, Young YH. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials via bone-conducted vibration in children. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(9):1880–5. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.02.059. This group has shown that oVEMPs can also successfully be recorded in children. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agrawal Y, Zuniga MG, Davalos-Bichara M, Schubert MC, Walston JD, Hughes J, et al. Decline in semicircular canal and otolith function with age. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol SocEur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2012;33(5):832–9. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182545061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nguyen KD, Welgampola MS, Carey JP. Test-retest reliability and age-related characteristics of the ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol SocEur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2010;31(5):793–802. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181e3d60e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Piker EG, Jacobson GP, McCaslin DL, Hood LJ. Normal characteristics of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22(4):222–30. doi: 10.3766/jaaa.22.4.5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rosengren SM, Govender S, Colebatch JG. Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials produced by air- and bone-conducted stimuli: comparative properties and effects of age. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(11):2282–9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tseng CL, Chou CH, Young YH. Aging effect on the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol SocEur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2010;31(6):959–63. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181e8fb1a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chang CM, Young YH, Cheng PW. Age-related changes in ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials via galvanic vestibular stimulation and bone-conducted vibration modes. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132(12):1295–300. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2012.708437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Colebatch JG, Govender S, Rosengren SM. Two distinct patterns of VEMP changes with age. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124(10):2066–8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.04.337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.••
    Janky KL, Nguyen KD, Welgampola M, Zuniga MG, Carey JP. Air-conducted oVEMPs provide the best separation between intact and superior canal dehiscent labyrinths. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol SocEur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2013;34(1):127–34. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e318271c32a. The study identified oVEMPs in response to air-conducted sound as the best single-step screening test parameter for superior canal dehiscence.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valko Y, Hegemann SC, Weber KP, Straumann D, Bockisch CJ. Relative diagnostic value of ocular vestibular evoked potentials and the subjective visual vertical during tilt and eccentric rotation. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(2):398–404. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.06.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosengren SM, Weber KP, Hegemann SC, Roth TN. The effect of alcohol on cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in healthy volunteers. Clin Neurophysiol Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2014;125(8):1700–8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.12.096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lin BY, Young YH. Effect of short-duration sleep deprivation on the vestibulo-ocular reflex system evaluated by ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test. Acta Otolaryngol. 2014;134(7):698–703. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2014.895039.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chien WW, Carey JP, Minor LB. Canal dehiscence. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011;24(1):25–31. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e328341ef88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manzari L, Burgess AM, McGarvie LA, Curthoys IS. Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to 500 Hz fz bone-conducted vibration in superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Ear Hear. 2012;33(4):508–20. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182498c09.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thabet EM, Abdelkhalek A, Zaghloul H. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome as assessed by oVEMP and temporal bone computed tomography imaging. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol: Off J Eur Fed OtorhinoLaryngol Soc. 2012;269(5):1545–9. doi: 10.1007/s00405-011-1893-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zuniga MG, Janky KL, Nguyen KD, Welgampola MS, Carey JP. Ocular versus cervical VEMPs in the diagnosis of superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol SocEur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2013;34(1):121–6. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31827136b0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosengren SM, Aw ST, Halmagyi GM, Todd NP, Colebatch JG. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in superior canal dehiscence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(5):559–68. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.126730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Welgampola MS, Myrie OA, Minor LB, Carey JP. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential thresholds normalize on plugging superior canal dehiscence. Neurology. 2008;70(6):464–72. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000299084.76250.4a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.••
    Taylor RL, Bradshaw AP, Halmagyi GM, Welgampola MS. Tuning characteristics of ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in intact and dehiscent ears. Audiol Neurootol. 2012;17(4):207–18. doi: 10.1159/000336959. The authors carefully investigated the tuning characteristics of patients with superior canal dehiscence compared to normal subjects. Superior canal dehiscence led to a broadening of amplitude and threshold tuning curves. While AC oVEMPs tended to tune upwards, AC cVEMPs tended to tune downwards.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Taylor RL, Blaivie C, Bom AP, Holmeslet B, Pansell T, Brantberg K, et al. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) to skull taps in normal and dehiscent ears: mechanisms and markers of superior canal dehiscence. Exp Brain Res Exp Hirnforschung Exp Cereb. 2014;232(4):1073–84. doi: 10.1007/s00221-013-3782-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang AS, Govender S, Colebatch JG. Tuning of the ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) to air- and bone-conducted sound stimulation in superior canal dehiscence. Exp Brain Res Exp Hirnforschung Exp Cereb. 2012;223(1):51–64. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3240-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG. A utricular origin of frequency tuning to low-frequency vibration in the human vestibular system? Neurosci Lett. 2009;451(3):175–80. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.12.055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chihara Y, Iwasaki S, Fujimoto C, Ushio M, Yamasoba T, Murofushi T. Frequency tuning properties of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Neuroreport. 2009;20(16):1491–5. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283329b4a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Park HJ, Lee IS, Shin JE, Lee YJ, Park MS. Frequency-tuning characteristics of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by air-conducted tone bursts. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121(1):85–9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.•
    Zhang AS, Govender S, Colebatch JG. Superior canal dehiscence causes abnormal vestibular bone-conducted tuning. Neurology. 2011;77(9):911–3. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822c6263. This case report was the first to show broadened tuning curves for BC oVEMPs in patients with SCD. The tuning returned to normal following surgery.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.•
    Manzari L, Burgess AM, McGarvie LA, Curthoys IS. An indicator of probable semicircular canal dehiscence: ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to high frequencies. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2013;149(1):142–5. doi: 10.1177/0194599813489494. The study suggests oVEMPs with 4000 Hz AC or BC high-frequency stimulation as a specific indicator for superior canal dehiscence, which only elicits a response in patients with probable superior canal dehiscence, but not in normal subjects.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ward BK, Wenzel A, Ritzl EK, Gutierrez-Hernandez S, Della Santina CC, Minor LB, et al. Near-dehiscence: clinical findings in patients with thin bone over the superior semicircular canal. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2013;34(8):1421–8. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e318287efe6.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Taylor RL, Bradshaw AP, Magnussen JS, Gibson WP, Halmagyi GM, Welgampola MS. Augmented ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to air-conducted sound in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. Ear Hear. 2012;33(6):768–71. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e31825ce613.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jeong SH, Kim HJ, Kim JS. Vestibular neuritis. Semin Neurol. 2013;33(3):185–94. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1354598.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    MacDougall HG, Weber KP, McGarvie LA, Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS. The video head impulse test: diagnostic accuracy in peripheral vestibulopathy. Neurology. 2009;73(14):1134–41. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181bacf85.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aw ST, Fetter M, Cremer PD, Karlberg M, Halmagyi GM. Individual semicircular canal function in superior and inferior vestibular neuritis. Neurology. 2001;57(5):768–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.•
    Magliulo G, Gagliardi S, Ciniglio Appiani M, Iannella G, Re M. Vestibular neurolabyrinthitis: a follow-up study with cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the video head impulse test. Ann Rhinol Laryngol. 2014;123(3):162–73. doi: 10.1177/0003489414522974. This large study tested all three semicircular canals and both otoliths using vHIT and VEMPs. They confirmed the finding that VN more often affects the superior nerve or whole nerve rather than the inferior nerve, and showed that the deficits are often only patchy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim JS, Kim HJ. Inferior vestibular neuritis. J Neurol. 2012;259(8):1553–60. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-6375-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lin CM, Young YH. Identifying the affected branches of vestibular nerve in vestibular neuritis. Acta Otolaryngol. 2011;131(9):921–8. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2011.573504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oh SY, Kim JS, Yang TH, Shin BS, Jeong SK. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in vestibular neuritis: comparison between air- and bone-conducted stimulation. J Neurol. 2013;260(8):2102–9. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-6953-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Manzari L, Tedesco A, Burgess AM, Curthoys IS. Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration in superior vestibular neuritis show utricular function. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2010;143(2):274–80. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2010.03.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Murofushi T, Halmagyi GM, Yavor RA, Colebatch JG. Absent vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in vestibular neurolabyrinthitis. An indicator of inferior vestibular nerve involvement? Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;122(8):845–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Magliulo G, Gagliardi S, Ciniglio Appiani M, Iannella G, Gagliardi M. Selective vestibular neurolabyrinthitis of the lateral and superior semicircular canal ampulla and ampullary nerves. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012;121(10):640–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fujimoto C, Egami N, Kinoshita M, Sugasawa K, Yamasoba T, Iwasaki S. Involvement of vestibular organs in idiopathic sudden hearing loss with vertigo: an analysis using oVEMP and cVEMP testing. Clin Neurophysiol Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.07.028.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Adamec I, Skoric MK, Handzic J, Barusic AK, Bach I, Gabelic T, et al. The role of cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in the follow-up of vestibular neuritis. Clinical EEG Neurosci. 2014;45(2):129–36. doi: 10.1177/1550059413483452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim JS, Zee DS. Clinical practice: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(12):1138–47. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1309481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bremova T, Bayer O, Agrawal Y, Kremmyda O, Brandt T, Teufel J, et al. Ocular VEMPs indicate repositioning of otoconia to the utricle after successful liberatory maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133(12):1297–303. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2013.829922.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee JD, Park MK, Lee BD, Lee TK, Sung KB, Park JY. Abnormality of cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in patients with recurrent benign paroxysmal postitional vertigo. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133(2):150–3. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2012.723823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nakahara H, Yoshimura E, Tsuda Y, Murofushi T. Damaged utricular function clarified by oVEMP in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133(2):144–9. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2012.720030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Seo T, Saka N, Ohta S, Sakagami M. Detection of utricular dysfunction using ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Neurosci Lett. 2013;550:12–6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.06.041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Singh NK, Barman A. Efficacy of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in identifying posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Ear Hear. 2014. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000097.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Backous DD, Pham HT. Guiding patients through the choices for treating vestibular schwannomas: balancing options and ensuring informed consent. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2007;40(3):521–40. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2007.03.004. viii-ix.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chiarovano E, Darlington C, Vidal PP, Lamas G, de Waele C. The role of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in the assessment of patients with vestibular schwannomas. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e105026. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105026.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.•
    Kinoshita M, Iwasaki S, Fujimoto C, Inoue A, Egami N, Chihara Y, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to air-conducted sound and bone-conducted vibration in vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2013;34(7):1342–8. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31828d6539. The authors tested AC cVEMPs, AC and BC oVEMPs, and calorics in patients with vestibular Schwannoma. They found that the latter three tests correlated with each other, but not with the cVEMP, suggesting that both AC and BC oVEMPs are mediated by the superior vestibular nerve.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lin KL, Chen CM, Wang SJ, Young YH. Correlating vestibular schwannoma size with vestibular-evoked myogenic potential results. Ear Hear. 2014;35(5):571–6. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Su CH, Chen CM, Young YH. Differentiating cerebellopontine angle meningioma from schwannoma using caloric testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. J Neurol Sci. 2013;335(1–2):155–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.09.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Iwasaki S, Murofushi T, Chihara Y, Ushio M, Suzuki M, Curthoys IS, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration in vestibular schwannomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2010;31(1):147–52. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181c0e670.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Foundation, Inc. Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy in Meniere’s disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;113(3):181–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zuniga MG, Janky KL, Schubert MC, Carey JP. Can vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials help differentiate Meniere disease from vestibular migraine? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146(5):788–96. doi: 10.1177/0194599811434073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Huang CH, Wang SJ, Young YH. Localization and prevalence of hydrops formation in Meniere’s disease using a test battery. Audiol Neurootol. 2011;16(1):41–8. doi: 10.1159/000312199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Taylor RL, Wijewardene AA, Gibson WP, Black DA, Halmagyi GM, Welgampola MS. The vestibular evoked-potential profile of Meniere’s disease. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(6):1256–63. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.•
    Winters SM, Campschroer T, Grolman W, Klis SF. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to air-conducted sound in Meniere’s disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2011;32(8):1273–80. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e31822e5ac9. This study compared amplitudes and thresholds of affected and unaffected ears in patients with different stages of MD. AC oVEMPs were nearly always present in normal control ears, and were smaller in the patients, especially in affected ears, but also on the unaffected side.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Manzari L, Tedesco AR, Burgess AM, Curthoys IS. Ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration in Meniere’s disease during quiescence vs during acute attacks. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121(7):1092–101. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Okuno T, Sando I. Localization, frequency, and severity of endolymphatic hydrops and the pathology of the labyrinthine membrane in Meniere’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1987;96(4):438–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Young YH, Huang TW, Cheng PW. Assessing the stage of Meniere’s disease using vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129(8):815–8. doi: 10.1001/archotol.129.8.815.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wen MH, Cheng PW, Young YH. Augmentation of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials via bone-conducted vibration stimuli in Meniere disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;146(5):797–803. doi: 10.1177/0194599811433982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Taylor RL, Zagami AS, Gibson WP, Black DA, Watson SR, Halmagyi MG, et al. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to sound and vibration: characteristics in vestibular migraine that enable separation from Meniere’s disease. Cephalalgia: Int J Headache. 2012;32(3):213–25. doi: 10.1177/0333102411434166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sandhu JS, Low R, Rea PA, Saunders NC. Altered frequency dynamics of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with Meniere’s disease. Otol Neurotol: Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol Soc Eur Acad Otol Neurotol. 2012;33(3):444–9. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182488046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Winters SM, Berg IT, Grolman W, Klis SF. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: frequency tuning to air-conducted acoustic stimuli in healthy subjects and Meniere’s disease. Audiol Neurootol. 2012;17(1):12–9. doi: 10.1159/000324858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rauch SD, Zhou G, Kujawa SG, Guinan JJ, Herrmann BS. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials show altered tuning in patients with Meniere’s disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg: Off J Am Acad OtolaryngolHead Neck Surg. 2004;25(3):333–8.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jerin C, Berman A, Krause E, Ertl-Wagner B, Gurkov R. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential frequency tuning in certain Meniere’s disease. Hear Res. 2014;310:54–9. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2014.02.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shepard NT. Differentiation of Meniere’s disease and migraine-associated dizziness: a review. J Am Acad Audiol. 2006;17(1):69–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shimizu K, Murofushi T, Sakurai M, Halmagyi M. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000;69(2):276–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Oh SY, Kim JS, Lee JM, Shin BS, Hwang SB, Kwak KC, et al. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by air-conducted sound in patients with acute brainstem lesions. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;124(4):770–8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.09.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are abnormal in internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122(6):1264–7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2010.10.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rosengren SM, Nogajski JH, Cremer PD, Colebatch JG. Delayed vestibular evoked responses to the eyes and neck in a patient with an isolated brainstem lesion. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(9):2112–6. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2007.05.068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Su CH, Young YH. Differentiating cerebellar and brainstem lesions with ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol: Off J Eur Fed Otorhinolaryngol Soc. 2011;268(6):923–30. doi: 10.1007/s00405-010-1463-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gabelic T, Krbot M, Sefer AB, Isgum V, Adamec I, Habek M. Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Cinical Neurophysiol: Off Publ Am Electroencephalog Soc. 2013;30(1):86–91. doi: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e31827eda0c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gabelic T, Krbot Skoric M, Adamec I, Barun B, Zadro I, Habek M. The vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) score: a promising tool for evaluation of brainstem involvement in multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol: Off J Eur Fed Neurol Soc. 2014. doi: 10.1111/ene.12557.Google Scholar
  92. 92.•
    Gazioglu S, Boz C. Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis patients. Clin Neurophysiol: Off J Int Fed Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(9):1872–9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.01.022. The authors recorded AC oVEMPs and cVEMPs in patients with MS and found some cases of reflex absence and multiple cases of reflex delay, consistent with demyelination. The latencies were not significantly correlated with brainstem clinical or MRI findings, but were significantly related to disability score.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ivankovic A, Nesek Madaric V, Starcevic K, Krbot Skoric M, Gabelic T, Adamec I. Auditory evoked potentials and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in evaluation of brainstem lesions in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2013;328(1–2):24–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.02.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Neurology DepartmentRoyal Prince Alfred HospitalSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Central Clinical SchoolUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations