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Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

Abstract

Sleep disturbances are a common non-motor feature in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Early diagnosis and appropriate management are imperative for enhancing patient quality of life. Sleep disturbances can be caused by multiple factors in addition to age-related changes in sleep, such as nocturnal motor symptoms (rigidity, resting tremor, akinesia, tardive dyskinesia, and the “wearing off” phenomenon), non-motor symptoms (pain, hallucination, and psychosis), nocturia, and medication. Disease-related pathology involving the brainstem and changes in the neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine) responsible for regulating sleep structure and the sleep/wake cycle play a role in emerging excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances. Additionally, screening for sleep apnea syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome is clinically important. Questionnaire-based assessment utilizing the PD Sleep Scale-2 is useful for screening PD-related nocturnal symptoms. In this review, we focus on the current understanding and management of sleep disturbances in PD.

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Keisuke Suzuki, Masayuki Miyamoto, Tomoyuki Miyamoto, and Koichi Hirata declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Correspondence to Keisuke Suzuki.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Sleep

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Suzuki, K., Miyamoto, M., Miyamoto, T. et al. Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 15, 8 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-015-0525-5

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Keywords

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Insomnia
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Restless legs syndrome
  • Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
  • Sleep apnea syndrome