Treatment and Physiology in Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia: Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Uncover the Mechanisms of Action

Movement Disorders (M Okun, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Movement Disorders


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has served as an important technological breakthrough in the field of the physiology of movement disorders over the last three decades. TMS has grown popular owing to the ease of application as well as its painless and noninvasive character. The technique has provide important insights into understanding the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. The basic applications have included the study of motor cortex excitability, functioning of excitatory and inhibitory circuits, study of interactions between sensory and motor systems, and the plasticity response of the brain. TMS has also made important contributions to understanding the response to treatments such as dopaminergic medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery. This review summarizes the knowledge gained to date with TMS in Parkinson’s disease and dystonia, and highlights the current challenges in the use of TMS technology.


Transcranial magnetic stimulation Parkinson’s disease Dystonia 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology and Center for Movement Disorders and NeurorestorationUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Applied Physiology and KinesiologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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