Update on Herpes Virus Infections of the Nervous System
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Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are human neurotropic viruses that establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the entire life of the host. From the DRG they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although they vary, in part, in the clinical disorders they cause, and in their molecular structure, they share several features that govern the biology of their infection of the human nervous system. HSV-1 is the causative agent of encephalitis, corneal blindness, and several peripheral nervous system disorders; HSV-2 is responsible for meningoencephalitis in neonates and meningitis in adults. The biology of their ability to establish latency, maintain it for the entire life of the host, reactivate, and cause primary and recurrent disease is being studied in animal models and in humans. This review covers recent advances in understanding the biology and pathogenesis of HSV-related disease.
KeywordsHerpes virus infections HSV Nervous system HSV-1 HSV-2 Herpes simplex encephalitis HSE
Felix Benninger received the Beilinson Hospital Young Investigators Grant in 2012.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Israel Steiner serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Neurological Sciences, Journal of Neurovirology, and Medicine Neurology (Hebrew). He is a consultant and member of DSMB for Actelion and Genentech/Roche. He has received honoraria from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. He has also received travel/accommodations expenses covered or reimbursed from Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Felix Benninger declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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