The Role of Emerging and Neglected Viruses in the Etiology of Hepatitis

  • Anna MrzljakEmail author
  • Irena Tabain
  • Hrvoje Premac
  • Maja Bogdanic
  • Ljubo Barbic
  • Vladimir Savic
  • Vladimir Stevanovic
  • Ana Jelic
  • Danko Mikulic
  • Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek
Intra-Abdominal Infections, Hepatitis and Gastroenteritis (T Steiner, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Intra-abdominal Infections, Hepatitis, and Gastroenteritis


Purpose of Review

In this review, we present the overview of emerging and neglected viruses associated with liver involvement.

Recent Findings

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) emerged in the last two decades, causing hepatitis in many parts of the world. Moreover, liver involvement was also described in some emerging arboviral infections. Many reports showed dengue-associated liver injury; however, chikungunya, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, and Zika virus are rarely associated with clinically manifest liver disease. In addition, some neglected highly prevalent viruses such as adenoviruses and parvovirus B19 are capable of causing hepatitis in specific population groups. Anelloviruses (torque teno virus/torque teno mini virus/torque teno midi virus, SEN virus), human bocavirus, pegiviruses, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus have shown a little potential for causing hepatitis, but their role in the etiology of liver disease remains to be determined.


In addition to the well-known hepatotropic viruses, many emerging and neglected viruses have been associated with liver diseases. The number of emerging zoonotic viruses has been increasingly recognized. While zoonotic potential of HEV is well documented, the recent identification of new hepatitis-related animal viruses such as HEV strains from rabbits and camels, non-primate hepaciviruses in domestic dogs and horses, as well as equine and porcine pegivirus highlights the possible zoonotic transmission in the context of “One Health.” However, zoonotic potential and hepatotropism of animal hepatitis viruses remain to be determined.


Hepatotropic viruses Hepatitis E virus Arboviruses Adenoviruses Parvovirus B19 Anelloviruses Human bocavirus Pegiviruses Arenaviruses 


Funding Information

This study was supported in part by the Croatian Science Foundation, project no. HRZZ IP 2016-06-7456: Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology of Emerging and Re-emerging Neuroinvasive Arboviral Infections in Croatia; CRONEUROARBO (to TVC).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineMerkur University HospitalZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Department of VirologyCroatian Institute of Public HealthZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.Department of MedicineVarazdin General HospitalVarazdinCroatia
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  6. 6.Poultry Center, Laboratory for Virology and SerologyCroatian Veterinary InstituteZagrebCroatia
  7. 7.Department of SurgeryMerkur University HospitalZagrebCroatia

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