Antimicrobial Therapy in Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children
Purpose of Review
Empirical antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best option for empirical antibiotics for treatment on an ambulatory basis, as well as in those requiring hospitalization, is still unclear. This review tries to answer the question regarding the most appropriate antibiotics in different settings in children with CAP as well as duration of therapy.
Recent studies have provided insights regarding use of oral antibiotics in children with mild to moderate CAP, and severe CAP with lower chest retractions but no hypoxia. In view of rapidly emerging resistance among various causative pathogens, several new drugs have been currently approved, or are under trial for CAP in children.
Current knowledge suggests that the choice of antibiotics for ambulatory treatment of CAP is oral amoxicillin with a duration of 3–5 days. Children with CAP with lower chest retractions but no hypoxia can be treated with oral amoxicillin. Severe pneumonia can be treated with intravenous antibiotics consisting of penicillin/ampicillin with or without an aminoglycoside. Several new drugs have been developed and approved for use in CAP caused by multidrug-resistant organisms, but these should be used judiciously to avoid emergence of further resistance. Future research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of newer drugs in children.
KeywordsAcute lower respiratory tract infection Children Community-acquired pneumonia Pneumococcal
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Samriti Gupta, Rakesh Lodha, and S.K. Kabra declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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