Update on Tick-Borne Bacterial Diseases in Travelers
- 442 Downloads
Purpose of Review
Ticks are the second most important vectors of infectious diseases after mosquitoes worldwide. The growth of international tourism including in rural and remote places increasingly exposes travelers to tick bite. Our aim was to review the main tick-borne infectious diseases reported in travelers in the past 5 years.
In recent years, tick-borne bacterial diseases have emerged in travelers including spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses, borrelioses, and diseases caused by bacteria of the Anaplasmataceae family.
African tick-bite fever, due to Rickettsia africae, is the most frequent agent reported in travelers returned from Sub-Saharan areas. Other SFG agents are increasingly reported in travelers, and clinicians should be aware of them. Lyme disease can be misdiagnosed in Southern countries. Organisms causing tick-borne relapsing fever are neglected pathogens worldwide, and reports in travelers have allowed the description of new species. Infections due to Anaplasmataceae bacteria are more rarely described in travelers, but a new species of Neoehrlichia has recently been detected in a traveler. The treatment of these infections relies on doxycycline, and travelers should be informed before the trip about prevention measures against tick bites.
KeywordsRickettsia Tick-borne diseases Traveler Borrelia Ehrlichia Anaplasma
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.Kernif T, Leulmi H, Raoult D, Parola P. Emerging tick-borne bacterial pathogens. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4Google Scholar
- 2.World Tourism Organization UNWTO Specialized agency of the United Nations. Available at: http://www2.unwto.org/. Accessed 8 Dec 2017.Google Scholar
- 5.Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Steere AC, Klempner MS, et al. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1089–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.•• Zammarchi L, Farese A, Trotta M, Amantini A, Raoult D, Bartoloni A. Rickettsia africae infection complicated with painful sacral syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Zimbabwe. Int J Infect Dis IJID Off Publ Int Soc Infect Dis. 2014;29:194–6. This paper describes is a new interesting feature of Rickettsia africae infection Google Scholar
- 26.Luke N, Munasinghe H, Balasooriya L, Premaratna R. Widespread subcutaneous necrosis in spotted fever group rickettsioses from the coastal belt of Sri Lanka—a case report. BMC Infect Dis 2017; 17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392909/. Accessed 15 December 2017, 278.Google Scholar
- 32.Renvoisé A, Delaunay P, Blanchouin E, Cannavo I, Cua E, Socolovschi C, et al. Urban family cluster of spotted fever rickettsiosis linked to Rhipicephalus sanguineus infected with Rickettsia conorii subsp. caspia and Rickettsia massiliae. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis. 2012;3:389–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Ogimi C, Crowell C, Boos MD. Areolar lymphocytoma in a child: a rare cutaneous presentation of borreliosis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017;Google Scholar
- 49.•• Fingerle V, Pritsch M, Wächtler M, et al. ‘Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica’ detected from a febrile traveller returning to Germany from vacation in Southern Africa. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2016; 10. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816561/. Accessed 15 Dec. This paper describes a new species of Borrelia detected in a traveler.
- 55.•• Schwameis M, Auer J, Mitteregger D, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Ramharter M, Burgmann H, et al. Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance for symptomatic Neoehrlichiosis in immunocompetent host. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:281–4. This paper describes a new species of Neoehrlichia in a traveler from Tanzania CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar