Immune Monitoring for CMV in Transplantation

  • Michelle K. YongEmail author
  • Sharon R. Lewin
  • Oriol Manuel
Transplant and Oncology (M Ison, N Theodoropoulos and S Pergam, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Transplant and Oncology


Purpose of Review

Immune monitoring to determine when and how the recovery of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells occurs post-transplantation may help clinicians to risk stratify individuals at risk of complications from CMV. We aimed to review all recent clinical studies using CMV immune monitoring in the pre- and post-transplant setting including the use of recently developed standardized assays (Quantiferon-CMV and the CMV ELISPOT) to better understand in whom, when, and how immune monitoring is best used.

Recent Findings

Pre-transplant assessment of CMV immunity in solid-organ transplant recipients where CMV seropositive recipients had undetectable cell-mediated responses despite past immunity has shown that they are at a much higher risk of developing CMV reactivation. Post-transplant CMV immune monitoring can guide (shorten or prolong) the duration of antiviral prophylaxis, identify recipients at risk of post-prophylaxis CMV disease, and predict recurrent CMV reactivation.


Thus, CMV immune monitoring, in addition to current clinical and DNA-based monitoring for CMV, has the potential to be incorporated into routine clinical care to better improve CMV management in both the stem and solid-organ transplant population.


Cytomegalovirus Solid-organ transplantation Stem-cell transplantation CMV-specific immunity Immune monitoring Quantiferon-CMV ELISPOT 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Manuel has received research grants from Lophius Biosciences GmbH and from Qiagen. Dr. Yong and Dr. Lewin declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle K. Yong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sharon R. Lewin
    • 1
  • Oriol Manuel
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and ImmunityThe University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.National Centre for Infections in CancerPeter MacCallum Cancer CentreMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Infectious Diseases Service, Department of MedicineUniversity Hospital and University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  4. 4.Transplantation Center, Department of Anesthesiology and SurgeryUniversity Hospital and University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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