Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Beyond Clostridium difficile
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Purpose of Review
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection.
Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Each of these proposed indications for FMT is associated with an underlying dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and generally a clinical response is linked with a restoration of the gut microbiota.
The potential of fecal microbial transplantation to alter disease course shows promise but further large-scale studies are necessary to understand limitations as well as how best to utilize this therapy.
KeywordsFecal microbiota transplantation Antibiotic resistance Inflammatory bowel disease Gastrointestinal Microbiota
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, and Karen Madsen declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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