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Human Rabies: a 2016 Update

  • Alan C. Jackson
Central Nervous System Infections (K Bloch, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Central Nervous System Infections

Abstract

Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is usually transmitted to humans by animal bites. Dogs are the most important vector worldwide. There are encephalitic and paralytic forms of the disease. There are differences in the clinical features of the disease acquired from dogs and bats. Neuroimaging is non-specific. Confirmatory diagnostic laboratory tests for rabies include detection of neutralizing anti-rabies virus antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and rabies virus antigen or RNA in tissues or fluids. Rabies is preventable after recognized exposures with wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin. Rabies is virtually always fatal after clinical disease develops, and there have only been rare survivors. The Milwaukee protocol, which includes therapeutic coma, has been shown to be ineffective and should no longer be used. The development of novel therapeutic approaches may depend on a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying the disease.

Keywords

Encephalitis Hydrophobia Paralytic rabies Rabies Rabies virus Zoonosis 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

Dr Jackson declares that he has no conflicts of interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any reports of new studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine (Neurology)University of Manitoba, Health Sciences CentreWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medical MicrobiologyUniversity of Manitoba, Health Sciences CentreWinnipegCanada

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