What We Know and What We Do Not Know About Factors Associated with and Interventions to Promote Antiretroviral Adherence

  • Sharon Mannheimer
  • Yael Hirsch-Moverman
HIV/AIDS (R MacArthur, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on HIV/AIDS


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence remains critical for achieving successful outcomes. Factors affecting ART adherence can occur at the individual level or be related to the treatment regimen, daily schedule, and/or interpersonal relationships. While treatment-related barriers have diminished with recent simplified ART regimens, guidelines still recommend considering regimen simplicity. ART readiness should be assessed prior to starting ART, with follow-up adherence assessments once ART is initiated, and at all subsequent clinical visits. Adherence interventions work best when multifaceted, targeted for at-risk and nonadherent participants, and tailored to individuals’ needs. Successful interventions have included education and counseling, provision of social support, directly observed therapy, and financial incentives. Pillboxes and two-way short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders have been shown to be effective and are widely recommended tools for promoting ART adherence. Further research is needed to determine the optimal combination of adherence interventions, as well as generalizability, implementation, and cost-effectiveness.


Adherence HIV Antiretroviral therapy Intervention Predictors 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Yael Hirsch-Moverman and Sharon Mannheimer have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineHarlem Hospital CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.ICAP, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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