Expatriates: Special Considerations in Pretravel Preparation
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Expatriates comprise a diverse set of travelers who face unique medical, psychiatric, and non-health-related risks as a result of increased exposure to host country environment and associated lifestyle. Expatriates have an increased risk of developing malaria, gastrointestinal disorders, latent tuberculosis, vaccine-preventable infections, and psychological disorders, when compared with other travelers, yet the majority of existing pretravel guidelines have been designed to suit the needs of nonexpatriates. Although greater interest in expatriate health issues has led to improved characterization of illness in this population, expatriate-specific risk mitigation strategies—including modifications to chemoprophylaxis recommendations, limiting tuberculosis exposure, and prevention of occupational or sexual blood-borne virus transmission—are poorly described. Occupations and destinations affect travel-related disease risk and should inform the pretravel consultation.
KeywordsExpatriates Rabies vaccine Japanese encephalitis vaccine Chemoprophylaxis Malaria International travel
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Conflict of Interest
Cassandra M. Pierre, Poh-Lian Lim, and Davidson H. Hamer declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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