Current Infectious Disease Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 263–274 | Cite as

Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic Countries: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatment

  • José A. Pérez-Molina
  • Francesca Norman
  • Rogelio López-Vélez
Tropical and Travel Medicine (LH Chen, Section Editor)


Imported Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is increasingly recognized as an emerging problem in the USA and Europe due to immigration from Latin America. Most migrants from endemic countries will have been infected during childhood. Based on the natural history of the disease, up to 35 % of those infected may develop cardiac and/or gastrointestinal manifestations during the third or fourth decade of life. This disease was described more than 100 years ago, yet many challenges still remain such as the identification of risk factors for visceral involvement, effective treatment for chronic cases, and reliable markers of cure following treatment. Transmission of the infection may occur even in non-endemic areas through non-vectorial routes and many countries are therefore currently facing the challenge of this emerging public health problem.


Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi Neglected tropical diseases Polymerase chain reaction Benznidazole Nifurtimox Posaconazole 



No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • José A. Pérez-Molina
    • 1
  • Francesca Norman
    • 1
  • Rogelio López-Vélez
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases DepartmentHospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, IRYCISMadridSpain

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