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- Crum-Cianflone, N.F. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2010) 12: 374. doi:10.1007/s11908-010-0118-z
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Infectious myositis is defined as an infection of a skeletal muscle. Infectious myositis is most commonly caused by bacteria; however, a variety of viral, parasitic, and fungal agents may also cause myositis. The pathogenesis of nonbacterial infectious myositis is via direct or hematogenous infection of the musculature or immune mechanisms. Symptoms typically include muscular pain, tenderness, swelling, and/or weakness. The diagnosis of the specific microbe is often suggested by the presence of concordant clinical signs and symptoms, a detailed medical and travel history, and laboratory data. For example, immunocompromised hosts have a heightened risk of fungal myositis, whereas the presence of a travel history to an endemic location and/or eosinophilia may suggest a parasitic cause. Definitive diagnosis requires detecting the organism by specific laboratory testing including serologies, histopathology, and/or cultures. Treatment entails antimicrobial agents against the pathogen, with consideration for surgical drainage for focal purulent collections within the musculature.