Current Infectious Disease Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 382–386 | Cite as

Long-term outcomes from sepsis



Long-term mortality following severe sepsis is high, and fewer than half of patients who experience severe sepsis are alive at 1 year. Mechanisms underlying increased long-term mortality remain poorly understood. Animal and human studies suggest that abnormalities of the innate immune system may contribute to increased long-term mortality. This review article examines the epidemiology and potential mechanisms underlying long-term outcomes from sepsis and challenges to conducting long-term outcome studies in the critically ill.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Angus DC, Carlet J, 2002 Brussels Roundtable Participants: Surviving intensive care: a report from the 2002 Brussels Roundtable. Intensive Care Med 2003, 29:368–377.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al.: 2001 SCCM/ ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med 2003, 31:1250–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steinberg KP, Hudson LD, Goodman RB, et al.: Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2006, 354:1671–1684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Quartin AA, Schein RM, Kett DH, Peduzzi PN: Magnitude and duration of the effect of sepsis on survival. Department of Veterans Affairs Systemic Sepsis Cooperative Studies Group. JAMA 1997, 277:1058–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaplan V, Clermont G, Griffin MF, et al.: Pneumonia: still the old man’s friend? Arch Intern Med 2003, 163:317–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    LaCroix AZ, Lipson S, Miles TP, White L: Prospective study of pneumonia hospitalizations and mortality of U.S. older people: the role of chronic conditions, health behaviors, and nutritional status. Public Health Rep 1989, 104:350–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brancati FL, Chow JW, Wagener MM, et al.: Is pneumonia really the old man’s friend? Two-year prognosis after community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet 1993, 342:30–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koivula I, Sten M, Makela PH: Prognosis after communityacquired pneumonia in the elderly: a population-based 12-year follow-up study. Arch Intern Med 1999, 159:1550–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Waterer GW, Kessler LA, Wunderink RG: Medium-term survival after hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004, 169:910–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yende S, Angus DC, Ali IS, et al.: Influence of comorbid conditions on long-term mortality after pneumonia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007, 55:518–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mortensen EM, Coley CM, Singer DE, et al.: Causes of death for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2002, 162:1059–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hotchkiss RS, Karl IE: The pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis. N Engl J Med 2003, 348:138–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benjamim CF, Hogaboam CM, Kunkel SL: The chronic consequences of severe sepsis. J Leukoc Biol 2004, 75:408–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yende S, Kong L, Weissfeld LA, et al.: Inflammatory markers prior to hospital discharge predict subsequent mortality after community acquired pneumonia [abstract]. Presented at the American Thoracic Society Annual Meeting. San Diego, CA; May 19–24, 2006.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hopkins RO, Jackson JC: Long-term neurocognitive function after critical illness. Chest 2006, 130:869–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rubenfeld GD, Herridge MS: Epidemiology and outcomes of acute lung injury. Chest 2007, 131:554–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Joannidis M, Metnitz PG: Epidemiology and natural history of acute renal failure in the ICU. Crit Care Clin 2005, 21:239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson JC, Hart RP, Gordon SM, et al.: Six-month neuropsychological outcome of medical intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 2003, 31:1226–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Pope D, et al.: Neuropsychological sequelae and impaired health status in survivors of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999, 160:50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herridge MS, Cheung AM, Tansey CM, et al.: One-year outcomes in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003, 348:683–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morgera S, Kraft AK, Siebert G, et al.: Long-term outcomes in acute renal failure patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapies. Am J Kidney Dis 2002, 40:275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chelluri L, Im KA, Belle SH, et al.: Long-term mortality and quality of life after prolonged mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 2004, 32:61–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van Pelt DC, Milbrandt EB, Qin L, et al.: Informal caregiver burden among survivors of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Am J Resp Crit Car Med 2007, 175:167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Critical Care MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations