Tuberculosis, drug resistance, and HIV/AIDS: A triple threat
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- Friedland, G. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2007) 9: 252. doi:10.1007/s11908-007-0039-7
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The worldwide epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS have been joined by an insidiously developing third epidemic of TB drug resistance. Fueled by the disruption of TB control programs and the explosive growth of HIV/AIDS, the presence of TB drug resistance, particularly multiple drug resistance, is worldwide and threatens the gains made in the past decades in the treatment of both TB and HIV. Although treatment success is possible, the diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant TB is difficult. Advances in TB diagnosis and treatment have been minimal in the past 40 years, and there is an urgent need for wider distribution of available diagnostic technology and for the development and testing of newer rapid molecular diagnostic techniques and therapeutic agents. This review discusses current information about the distribution of multiple drug-resistant and newer extensively drug-resistant TB as well as available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies with an emphasis on the relationship between TB drug resistance and HIV/AIDS.