Tuberculosis, drug resistance, and HIV/AIDS: A triple threat
- 131 Downloads
The worldwide epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS have been joined by an insidiously developing third epidemic of TB drug resistance. Fueled by the disruption of TB control programs and the explosive growth of HIV/AIDS, the presence of TB drug resistance, particularly multiple drug resistance, is worldwide and threatens the gains made in the past decades in the treatment of both TB and HIV. Although treatment success is possible, the diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant TB is difficult. Advances in TB diagnosis and treatment have been minimal in the past 40 years, and there is an urgent need for wider distribution of available diagnostic technology and for the development and testing of newer rapid molecular diagnostic techniques and therapeutic agents. This review discusses current information about the distribution of multiple drug-resistant and newer extensively drug-resistant TB as well as available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies with an emphasis on the relationship between TB drug resistance and HIV/AIDS.
KeywordsTuberculosis Multiple Drug Resistance Ethionamide Drug Sensitivity Testing Capreomycin
References and Recommended Reading
- 2.World Health Organization: Global Tuberculosis Control Surveillance, Planning, Financing. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
- 3.World Health Organization: Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes, 3rd edn. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
- 4.UNAIDS, World Health Organization: AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.Google Scholar
- 6.Reichman L, Tanne J: Timebomb: The Global Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. New York: McGraw Hill; 2001.Google Scholar
- 10.World Health Organization: Scaling up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-limited Settings: Guidelines for a Public Health Approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
- 11.World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance: Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World: Report no. 3. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.Google Scholar
- 13.US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs-worldwide 2000–2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006, 55:301–305.Google Scholar
- 14.World Health Organization: Meeting of the Global XDR TB Task Force. Geneva; October 9–10, 2006.Google Scholar
- 16.World Health Organization: Guidelines for the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis, vol. 361. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
- 19.Weyer K, Lancaster J, Brand J, et al.: Survey of Tuberculous Drug Resistance in South Africa, 2001–2002 (Technical report to the Department of Health, June). Tygerberg, South Africa: Medical Research Council of South Africa; 2003.Google Scholar
- 22.Gandhi NR, Moll A, Pawinski R, et al.: Favorable outcomes of integration of TB and HIV treatment in a rural South Africa: The Sizonq’oba study [abstract]. Presented at the XVI International Conference on AIDS. Toronto; August 13–18, 2006.Google Scholar
- 24.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Trends in tuberculosis—United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006, 55:305–308.Google Scholar
- 27.Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND). http://www.finddiagnostics.org/. Accessed February 13, 2007.
- 29.Partners In Health: The PIH Guide to the Medical Management of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. United States: Partners In Health; 2003. http://www.pih.org/inforesources/MDRTB/PIH_Guide_book_final.pdf. Accessed February 19, 2007.
- 30.World Health Organization: DOTS-Plus and the Green Light Committee. http://www.who.int/tb/dots/dotsplus/management/en/. Accessed March 7, 2007.
- 40.van der Wal M, Weyer K, Lancastre J: A standardised approach to management of drug-resistant TB in South Africa. Presented at the South Africa Medical Research Council Expert Consultation on Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Johannesburg, South Africa; September 7–8, 2006.Google Scholar
- 41.World Health Organization: Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. What, Where, How, and Action Steps. http://www.who.int/tb/xdr/xdrmap_mar_en.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2007.