Testing for HIV infection in the United States
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- Wolf, L.L. & Walensky, R.P. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2007) 9: 76. doi:10.1007/s11908-007-0026-z
The process by which HIV-infected individuals are tested and identified has changed with the evolving HIV epidemic and public health response. In this review, we discuss the rationale for increased HIV testing as well as the current standards in HIV diagnostics and their inherent limitations. Current policy guidelines for routine HIV testing from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are divergent. However, national momentum toward the implementation of routine HIV testing programs continues based on the efficacy and feasibility of these programs in terms of HIV case identification and on recent reports of their cost-effectiveness. As routine, voluntary HIV screening programs are established, issues surrounding consent, reporting, and stigma still persist, as does the challenge of effectively linking detected HIV cases to care.
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