The emergence of non-albicans Candida species as causes of invasive candidiasis and candidemia
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The last three decades have seen an expanding pool of high-risk patients susceptible to the opportunistic pathogen Candida. Accordingly, a dramatic increase in nosocomial blood stream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp has been reported throughout the world, starting in tertiary care centers and spreading to community hospitals. This absolute increase in Candida BSIs was accompanied by both an absolute and then a proportional increase in invasive infection caused by reduced fluconazole-susceptible non-albicans Candida spp. Currently, the incidence trend of BSI has stabilized, and Candida albicans remains the most common species causing fungal BSI. Clinicians must be aware of the importance and implications of non-albicans Candida spp when selecting antifungal drugs, although most studies have not shown significant outcome differences with use of the various antifungal classes.
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