International travel: Recommendations for the HIV-infected patient
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In order to prevent travel-related diseases in patients infected with HIV, pretravel planning that includes vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and behavioral modification is recommended. Many HIV-infected individuals successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy may travel safely. However, patients with reduced CD4 lymphocyte counts are at increased risk for bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Recommendations for vaccination and chemoprophylaxis are based on immune status and risk of infection. The efficacy of vaccination is dependant on CD4 lymphocyte count; inactivated and polysaccharide vaccines are considered safe in this population. Behavioral modifications to prevent food- and waterborne disease are an important component of disease prevention. A travel-health practitioner should review travel duration, destination, and activities, and assess the risk-benefit ratio of vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, in order to reduce the likelihood of travel-associated illness.
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