Immune restoration inflammatory syndromes: The dark side of successful antiretroviral treatment
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- Stoll, M. & Schmidt, R.E. Curr Infect Dis Rep (2003) 5: 266. doi:10.1007/s11908-003-0083-x
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The prevalence of cellular immunodeficiency has increased due to rising use of immunosuppressive therapies and the pandemic spread of HIV infection. More recently, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV has led to significant immune reconstitution, even in patients with previously long-lasting secondary immunodeficiency. HAART reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV infection and also changes the clinical course of prevalent subclinical opportunistic infections or autoimmune diseases. Atypical inflammatory disorders develop after initiation of HAART and have been summarized as “immune reconstitution syndrome,” “immune restoration disease,” and “immune restoration inflammatory syndrome.” However, diagnostic criteria and standards of therapy are yet to be defined. The awareness for these diseases is of increasing importance from a clinical point of view. This review summarizes the variety of immunoreconstitution disorders and describes possible diagnostic pitfalls. We also propose possible therapeutic options.