Cytomegalovirus disease in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. Epidemiologic studies indicate that until 10 years ago, nearly one half of HIV-infected patients eventually developed CMV end-organ disease, including chorioretinitis, esophagitis, colitis, pneumonia, and central nervous system disease. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) this incidence has declined dramatically. Nonetheless, patients still present with CMV disease and resistance or intolerance to HAART does develop, which may give rise to a resurgence of CMV syndromes in AIDS patients. Until recently, only intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet were available for management of CMV infection. With the advent of additional agents, clinicians now face the challenge of optimizing therapy for individual patients. This paper reviews the most common clinical syndromes caused by CMV, the treatment options, as well as an approach to diagnosing and treating antiviral resistance.
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References and Recommended Reading
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