Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Resistant Hypertension: Potential for Novel Treatments?

  • Mariana Rodrigues Pioli
  • Ana Paula de FariaEmail author
Antihypertensive Agents: Mechanisms of Drug Action (ME Ernst, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Antihypertensive Agents: Mechanisms of Drug Action


Purpose of Review

To gather data from studies evaluating the pro-inflammatory profile of individuals with resistant hypertension (RH), and bring a clinical update of new and potential complementary therapies to treat inflammation in RH.

Recent Findings

Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are related to elevated blood pressure and target organ damage in RH patients. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that some biological therapies, especially TNF-α inhibitors, regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with improvements in clinical outcomes, although they are not yet reported in RH.


New emerging therapies to treat inflammation in RH, although promising, are still hypotheses that have not been scientifically confirmed in clinical trials. For this reason, inflammation-target treatments, such as the TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, should be encouraged for testing as complementary therapies in RH in order to elucidate their potential benefits.


Refractory hypertension Blood pressure Cytokines Inflammation Biological therapies 



Mariana Rodrigues Pioli acknowledges the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Brazil.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, FCM 10 BuildingSchool of Medical Sciences - University of Campinas (FCM-UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

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