Evaluation and Management of Elevated Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Purpose of Review
To understand the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its medications on blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents and provide recommendations for management of elevated BP in children and adolescents with ADHD.
ADHD medications have cardiovascular effects including elevated BP. However, the bulk of the evidence indicates that stimulants and other ADHD medications are safe and do not cause severe cardiovascular diseases. BP should be assessed carefully at the time of ADHD diagnosis, because some behavioral changes similar to ADHD may be associated with hypertension.
ADHD medications appear to be safe. However, their long-term impact on the cardiovascular system is not clearly understood and needs further investigation. BP should be monitored regularly during ADHD pharmacotherapy in order to optimize the management of both conditions.
KeywordsADHD Pediatric hypertension Elevated blood pressure Stimulants Cardiovascular disease
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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