Family Dynamics in Sleep Health and Hypertension
- 33 Downloads
Purpose of Review
Present a conceptual model and review the recent literature on family dynamics, sleep, and hypertension.
Family dynamics predict hypertension and hypertension risk, in part, due to shared health behaviors. Sleep health behaviors (sleep duration, quality, and efficiency) predict hypertension risk in children and youth and are emerging as a family-level health behavior. Importantly, both family dynamics and sleep are modifiable. Family members influence one another’s sleep through their physical presence and through psychological and emotional mechanisms. Family members’ sleep patterns may also be coregulated. Negative family dynamics are associated with poor sleep health and predict greater cardiovascular risk. Sleep health behaviors in the family context may also interact with family dynamics to dampen or exacerbate hypertension risk factors in children and youth.
This review proposes that promoting sleep health in a family context could be one way to reduce long-term hypertension risk.
KeywordsFamily relationships Family dynamics Sleep behaviors Sleep health Children Youth Hypertension Hypertension risk
The authors are grateful to Daniel J. Buysse, MD for valued comments on the conceptual model presented in this manuscript.
Support for the first author (HEG) was provided by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (HL082610).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.•• Vedanthan R, Bansilal S, Soto AV, Kovacic JC, Latina J, Jaslow R, et al. Family-based approaches to cardiovascular health promotion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(14):1725–37. This review highlights how the family contributes to cardiovascular risk and reviews relevant literature on improving cardiovascular health through a family approach. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.•• Fobian AD, Elliott L, Louie T. A systematic review of sleep, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018;20(5):–42. Recent systematic revew linking children and youth sleep to hypertension and cardiovascular risk and highlighted the need for more systematic research in area. Google Scholar
- 10.Chen X, Beydoun MA, Wang Y. Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(2):265–74.Google Scholar
- 14.Yoong SL, Chai LK, Williams CM, Wiggers J, Finch M, Wolfenden L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions targeting sleep and their impact on child body mass index, diet, and physical activity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(5):1140–7.Google Scholar
- 18.Edwardson CL, Gorely T. Parental influences on different types and intensities of physical activity in youth: a systematic review. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2010;11(6):522–35.Google Scholar
- 21.Maume DJ, Sebastian RA, Bardo AR. Gender, work-family responsibilities, and sleep. Gender Soc. 2010;24(6):746–68.Google Scholar
- 24.Worthman CM, Melby MK. Toward a comparative developmental ecology of human sleep. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences. 2002:69–117.Google Scholar
- 27.Sbarra DA, Hazan C. Coregulation, dysregulation, self-regulation: an integrative analysis and empirical agenda for understanding adult attachment, separation, loss, and recovery. Personal Soc Psychol Rev. 2008;12(2):141–67.Google Scholar
- 30.• Kouros CD, El-Sheikh M. Within-Family Relations in Objective Sleep Duration, Quality, and Schedule. Child Dev. 2017;88(6):1983–2000. This study explored interdependence in sleep among multiple family members and found bidrectional assocations among mothers, fathers, and children. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.• Fuligni AJ, Tsai KM, Krull JL, Gonzales NA. Daily concordance between parent and adolescent sleep habits. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(2):244–50. This study demonstrated that adolescent sleep is connected to their parent's sleep even after accounting for common factors that influence sleep patterns. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 32.Vaughn BE, Waters TE, Steele RD, Roisman GI, Bost KK, Truitt W, et al. Multiple domains of parental secure base support during childhood and adolescence contribute to adolescents' representations of attachment as a secure base script. Attach Hum Dev. 2016;18(4):317–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 37.Vazsonyi AT, Harris C, Terveer AM, Pagava K, Phagava H, Michaud PA. Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: Evidence from National Probability Samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents. J Youth Adolescence. 2015;44(2):331–45.Google Scholar
- 38.Roblyer MIZ, Grzywacz JG. Demographic and parenting correlates of adolescent sleep functioning. J Child Fam Stud. 2015;24(11):3331–40.Google Scholar
- 39.Peltz JS, Rogge RD, O'Connor TG. Adolescent sleep quality mediates family chaos and adolescent mental health: a daily diary-based study. J Fam Psychol. 2018.Google Scholar
- 40.Staples AD, Bates JE, Petersen IT. Bedtime routines in early childhood: prevalence, consistency, and associations with nighttime sleep. Monogr Soc Res Child. 2015;80(1):141–59.Google Scholar
- 43.Tetreault E, Bouvette-Turcot AA, Bernier A, Bailey H. Associations between early maternal sensitivity and children's sleep throughout early childhood. Infant Child Dev. 2017;26(4).Google Scholar
- 44.Conway A, Modrek A, Gorroochurn P. Maternal sensitivity predicts fewer sleep problems at early adolescence for toddlers with negative emotionality: a case of differential susceptibility. Child Psychiat Hum D. 2018;49(1):86–99.Google Scholar
- 46.Wang L, Anderson JL, Dalton WT, Wu TJ, Liu XC, Zheng SM, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of overweight in their children. Matern Child Hlth J. 2013;17(5):940–8.Google Scholar
- 47.Pretty C, O'Leary DD, Cairney J, Wade TJ. Adverse childhood experiences and the cardiovascular health of children: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr. 2013;13.Google Scholar
- 51.Hernandez DC, Pressler E, Dorius C, Mitchell KS. Does family instability make girls fat? Gender differences between instability and weight. J Marriage Fam. 2014;76(1):175–90.Google Scholar
- 52.•• Su SY, Wang XL, Pollock JS, Treiber FA, Xu XJ, Snieder H, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and blood pressure trajectories from childhood to young adulthood the Georgia stress and heart study. Circulation. 2015;131(19):1674–U116. Authors of this manuscript found compelling evidence that adverse childhood experience have a lasting effect on blood pressure.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 53.Gupta-Malhotra M, Hashmi SS, Barratt MS, Milewicz DM, Shete S. Childhood-onset essential hypertension and the family structure. J Clin Hypertens. 2016;18(5):431–8.Google Scholar
- 55.Gibson LY, Allen KL, Byrne SM, Clark K, Blair E, Davis E, et al. Childhood overweight and obesity: maternal and family factors. J Child Fam Stud. 2016;25(11):3236–46.Google Scholar
- 60.El-Sheikh M, Hinnant JB, Erath SA. Marital conflict, vagal regulation, and Children's sleep: a longitudinal investigation. Monogr Soc Res Child. 2015;80(1):89–106.Google Scholar
- 66.Yavuz HM, Selcuk B. Predictors of obesity and overweight in preschoolers: the role of parenting styles and feeding practices. Appetite. 2018;120:491–9.Google Scholar
- 68.Pickering TG. Stress, inflammation, and hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007;9(7):567–71.Google Scholar
- 73.Meltzer LJ, Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep in the family. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2011;58(3):765–74.Google Scholar
- 74.Kenny DA, Kashy DA, Cook WL. Dyadic data analysis. New York: Guilford Press; 2006. xix, 458 p. p.Google Scholar
- 79.•• Jackson CL, Redline S, Emmons KM. Sleep as a potential fundamental contributor to disparities in cardiovascular health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:417–40. This literature review presenting a compelling model on how sleep disparities contribute to disparities in cardiovascular diseases. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 81.Enchautegui ME. Nonstandard work schedules and the well-being of low-income families. Urban Institute; 2013.Google Scholar