The Na+K+-ATPase Inhibitor Marinobufagenin and Early Cardiovascular Risk in Humans: a Review of Recent Evidence
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Purpose of Review
This review synthesizes recent findings in humans pertaining to the relationships between marinobufagenin (MBG), a steroidal Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor and salt-sensitivity biomarker, and early cardiovascular risk markers.
Twenty-four-hour urinary MBG strongly associates with habitual salt intake in young healthy adults (aged 20–30 years). Furthermore, in young healthy adults free of detected cardiovascular disease, MBG associates with increased large artery stiffness and left ventricular mass independent of blood pressure. These findings in human studies corroborate mechanistic data from rat studies whereby stimulation of MBG by a high salt intake or MBG infusion increased vascular fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy.
Twenty-four-hour urinary MBG may be a potential biomarker of early cardiovascular risk. Adverse associations between MBG—which increases with salt consumption—and early cardiovascular risk markers support the global efforts to reduce population-wide salt intake in an effort to prevent and control the burden of non-communicable diseases.
KeywordsEarly cardiovascular risk Humans Marinobufagenin Women Salt-sensitivity
The sources of funding of this research are the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), the South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) of the Department of Science and Technology, and National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa (UID 86895 and 111862). This research was supported in part by the Intramural research Program of the NIH, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This manuscript does not contain patient data.
Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors, and therefore, the NRF does not accept any liability in regard.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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