Real-World Strategies to Treat Hypertension Associated with Pediatric Obesity
Purpose of Review
To review the most recent literature on current strategies for the treatment of hypertension associated with pediatric obesity.
Over the last three decades, childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity prevalence in the USA has continued to rise. Unsurprisingly but rather disturbingly, this rising prevalence has been paralleled by an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in childhood such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes that become manifest earlier than previously reported. These childhood CVD risk factors are not only associated with target organ damage in childhood but also track into adulthood, increasing the risk of long-term CVD morbidity and mortality.
There have been several mechanisms proposed to explain the role of obesity on the development of hypertension in childhood. However, central to the management of obesity-related hypertension is a multifaceted approach targeting lifestyle modifications and weight loss. Effective treatment often also requires a pharmacologic approach and rarely bariatric surgery.
KeywordsObesity Adiposity Blood pressure Hypertension Cardiovascular disease risk factors Weight management Lifestyle modifications Pharmacotherapy
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Brady reports grants from NIH/NHLBI, grants from NIH/NIMH, grants from AHRQ, and grants from RESOLVE to Save Lives, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Binka reports grants from NIH/NHLBI during the conduct of the study.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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