Innate and Innate-Like Immune System in Hypertension and Vascular Injury
Purpose of Review
To describe the important role played by innate and innate-like immunity in the pathophysiology of hypertension and vascular injury.
Innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and monocytes/macrophages and innate lymphoid cells such as natural killer cells and unconventional T lymphocytes like γδ T cells contribute to hypertensive mechanisms by priming adaptive immune cells, leading to the triggering of vascular inflammation and blood pressure elevation or alternatively protecting against vascular injury. Specifically, monocyte/macrophages and γδ T cells seem to play a crucial role in the initiation of hypertension via regulation of adaptive immunity.
Innate and innate-like immunity play a leading role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Recent advances in this field provide us clues for future therapeutic approaches.
KeywordsBlood pressure Inflammation γδ T cells Natural killer cells Dendritic cells Macrophages Antigen-presenting cells Cytokines
Co-stimulatory molecule on antigen-presenting cell surface (CD80 or CD86)
Cluster of differentiation 28
Central nervous system
- MHC II
Major histocompatibility complex II
T cell receptor
The authors’ work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grants 102606 and 123465, CIHR First Pilot Foundation Grant 143348, a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair (CRC) on Hypertension and Vascular Research by the CRC Government of Canada/CIHR Program, by the Canada Fund for Innovation (all to ELS), and by a fellowship to AC (Canadian Vascular Network).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Schiffrin reports grants from Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Servier France, personal fees from Novartis USA, and Servier Canada, outside the submitted work. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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